Best BenQ Monitor 2020

Best BenQ Monitor 2020

Best BenQ Monitor 2020 – Quick List:

  1. BenQ EW2780U 27 Inch 4K Monitor – Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best Overall)
  2. BenQ SW2700PT 27 Inch QHD Monitor – Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best for Designers)
  3. BenQ EX3203R 144Hz Curved Gaming Monitor – Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best for Gaming)
  4. BenQ GW2480 24 inch FHD Monitor Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best Budget)

Best BenQ Monitor 2020

Welcome to the wtg buying guide for the Best BenQ Monitor 2020. BenQ may not be a household name to some such as Samsung and HP, but over the past few years that is quickly changing. Currently BenQ has established itself as a top-tier monitor brand that competes with the best in every category.

Designers especially broadly use BenQ monitors for graphic design and photo & video editing. We currently agree and have the BenQ SW2700PT as our #1 pick for the Best Monitor for Graphic Design 2020.

BenQ has also gotten noticed for it’s high-end gaming monitors. They are well designed, have vivid detail, fast refresh rates, and are affordable for just about everybody. What more could you ask for?

Best BenQ Monitor 2020 – In-Depth List:

BenQ EW2780U 27 Inch 4K Monitor

Best Benq Monitor 2020
Best Benq Monitor 2020 (Best Overall)

The BenQ EW2780U pretty much has everything, including USB-C connectivity. Do you want a large screen? Check. Do you want a 4K display? Check. Do you want integrated speakers, HDR, Eye Care Tech, USB-C, use for gaming, streaming, and productivity? Check (on all of the above).

Something that is a bit unique that the BenQ EW2780U has is HDRi. This monitor has a built-in sensor that detects ambient light and automatically adjusts the screen for optimal visual performance. It’s fantastic for watching videos, playing pc games, or even working late.

The information age is here, and the BenQ EW2780U provides all of that info (content) to you with a vibrant display.


BenQ SW2700PT 27 Inch QHD Monitor

Best BenQ Monitor 2020
Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best for Designers)

The BenQ SW2700PT is a god send for designers and other visual professionals such as video and photo editors. In other words, if your profession involves utilizing images and you would like to view them on the best display possible, this is for you.

This is not the cheapest monitor available, but its not meant to be, its striving for the best. The BenQ SW2700PT is still an affordable option for many, and you can opt for even more with the BenQ SW270C and BenQ SW271. They offer USB-C connectivity, higher max resolution, and additional visual enhancements.

If your a visual professional, and you want the best, you should purchase a BenQ monitor today.


BenQ EX3203R 144Hz Curved Gaming Monitor

Best BenQ Monitor 2020
Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best for Gaming)

We choose the BenQ EX3203R because it not only has a great refresh rate of 144Hz, but also because it has a gorgeous curved screen that pulls you into the game. It doesn’t hurt that it’s also fairly affordable for most people.

As mentioned earlier, BenQ creates monitors that can handle just about anything but they do particularly specialize in visual design monitors and gaming monitors.

The BenQ EX3203R is a prime example of BenQ’s focus on bringing everything together for the ultimate gaming experience. We currently suggest the 32 inch, but if you want to go a little bigger the BenQ EX3501R 34-35 inch monitor is also a beast (in a very good way).


BenQ GW2480 24 inch FHD Monitor

Best BenQ Monitor 2020
Best BenQ Monitor 2020 (Best Budget)

If you want to stretch the boundaries of affordability when purchasing a BenQ monitor, the BenQ GW2480 should not disappoint. It does not have the largest screen size, nor the fastest refresh rate for gaming, but it is still a BenQ monitor therefore essentially guaranteeing quality.

Even thought the price is reduced, this monitor still has minimal bezels, a solid 24 inch display, adaptive eye care technology, and integrated speakers.

The BenQ GW2480 is literally one of the lowest priced monitors that we currently recommend.


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Computer science is the study of computation and information.[1][2] Computer science deals with theory of computationalgorithmscomputational problems and the design of computer systems hardwaresoftware and applications.[3][4] Computer science addresses both human-made and natural information processes, such as communicationcontrolperceptionlearning and intelligence especially in human-made computing systems and machines.[5][6][7] According to Peter Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, What can be automated?[8][5]

Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplinesComputational complexity theory is highly abstract, while computer graphics and computational geometry emphasizes real-world applications. Algorithmics is called the heart of computer science.[9] Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while software engineering involves the use of programming languages and complex systemsComputer architecture and computer engineering deals with construction of computer components and computer-controlled equipment.[5][10] Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful, usable, and accessibleArtificial intelligence aims to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, motion planninglearning, and communication found in humans and animals.

The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.

Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623.[13] In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner.[14] Leibniz may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry[note 1] when he invented his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine.[15] He started developing this machine in 1834, and “in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer”.[16] “A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom[16] making it infinitely programmable.[note 2] In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, which is considered to be the first published algorithm ever specifically tailored for implementation on a computer.[17] Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information; eventually his company became part of IBM. Following Babbage, although unaware of his earlier work, Percy Ludgate in 1909 published [18] the 2nd of the only two designs for mechanical analytical engines in history. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage’s impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, which was making all kinds of punched card equipment and was also in the calculator business[19] to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage’s Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit. When the machine was finished, some hailed it as “Babbage’s dream come true”.[20]

During the 1940s, with the development of new and more powerful computing machines such as the Atanasoff–Berry computer and ENIAC, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.[21] As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City. The renovated fraternity house on Manhattan’s West Side was IBM’s first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM’s Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world.[22] Ultimately, the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946.[23] Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s.[5][24] The world’s first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science department in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962.[25] Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights.

Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population.[26][27] It is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM (short for International Business Machines) released the IBM 704[28] and later the IBM 709[29] computers, which were widely used during the exploration period of such devices. “Still, working with the IBM [computer] was frustrating […] if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again”.[26] During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was very much in its developmental stages, and such issues were commonplace.[27]

The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs, built the first working transistor, the point-contact transistor, in 1947.[30][31] In 1953, the University of Manchester built the first transistorized computer, called the Transistor Computer.[32] However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.[33] The metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.[34][35] It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.[33] The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips,[36][37] leading to what is known as the computer revolution[38] or microcomputer revolution.[39]

Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology.[40] Modern society has seen a significant shift in the demographics which make use of computer technology; usage has shifted from being mostly exclusive to experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. Initially, computers were quite costly, and some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage.

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Although first proposed in 1956,[27] the term “computer science” appears in a 1959 article in Communications of the ACM,[41] in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in 1921,[42] justifying the name by arguing that, like management science, the subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline.[41] His efforts, and those of others such as numerical analyst George Forsythe, were rewarded: universities went on to create such departments, starting with Purdue in 1962.[43] Despite its name, a significant amount of computer science does not involve the study of computers themselves. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed.[44] Certain departments of major universities prefer the term computing science, to emphasize precisely that difference. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy,[45] to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1969, with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is data science; this is now used for a multi-disciplinary field of data analysis, including statistics and databases.

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In the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACMturingineerturologistflow-charts-manapplied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist.[46] Three months later in the same journal, comptologist was suggested, followed next year by hypologist.[47] The term computics has also been suggested.[48] In Europe, terms derived from contracted translations of the expression “automatic information” (e.g. “informazione automatica” in Italian) or “information and mathematics” are often used, e.g. informatique (French), Informatik (German), informatica (Italian, Dutch), informática (Spanish, Portuguese), informatika (Slavic languages and Hungarian) or pliroforiki (πληροφορική, which means informatics) in Greek. Similar words have also been adopted in the UK (as in the School of Informatics of the University of Edinburgh).[49] “In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing in the context of another domain.”[50]

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A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by—Edsger Dijkstra, states that “computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes.”[note 3] The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineering, while the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive sciencelinguisticsmathematicsphysicsbiologystatistics, and logic.

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Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science.[5] Early computer science was strongly influenced by the work of mathematicians such as Kurt GödelAlan TuringJohn von NeumannRózsa Péter and Alonzo Church and there continues to be a useful interchange of ideas between the two fields in areas such as mathematical logiccategory theorydomain theory, and algebra.[27]

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The relationship between Computer Science and Software Engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term “Software Engineering” means, and how computer science is defined.[51] David Parnas, taking a cue from the relationship between other engineering and science disciplines, has claimed that the principal focus of computer science is studying the properties of computation in general, while the principal focus of software engineering is the design of specific computations to achieve practical goals, making the two separate but complementary disciplines.[52]

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The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis. Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research.

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A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics.[53] Peter Denning‘s working group argued that they are theory, abstraction (modeling), and design.[54] Amnon H. Eden described them as the “rationalist paradigm” (which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoning), the “technocratic paradigm” (which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering), and the “scientific paradigm” (which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciences, identifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence).[55] Computer science focuses on methods involved in design, specification, programming, verification, implementation and testing of human-made computing systems.[56]

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Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes.

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As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software.[57][58] CSAB, formerly called Computing Sciences Accreditation Board—which is made up of representatives of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the IEEE Computer Society (IEEE CS)[59]—identifies four areas that it considers crucial to the discipline of computer science: theory of computationalgorithms and data structuresprogramming methodology and languages, and computer elements and architecture. In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human–computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science.[57]

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Theoretical Computer Science is mathematical and abstract in spirit, but it derives its motivation from the practical and everyday computation. Its aim is to understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies. All studies related to mathematical, logic and formal concepts and methods could be considered as theoretical computer science, provided that the motivation is clearly drawn from the field of computing.

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According to Peter Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, “What can be automated?”[5] Theory of computation is focused on answering fundamental questions about what can be computed and what amount of resources are required to perform those computations. In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation. The second question is addressed by computational complexity theory, which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems.

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The famous P = NP? problem, one of the Millennium Prize Problems,[60] is an open problem in the theory of computation.

Information and coding theory[edit]

Information theory, closely related to probability and statistics, is related to the quantification of information. This was developed by Claude Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.[61] Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes (systems for converting information from one form to another) and their fitness for a specific application. Codes are used for data compressioncryptographyerror detection and correction, and more recently also for network coding. Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods. [62]

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Data structures and algorithms are the studies of commonly used computational methods and their computational efficiency.

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Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics, software engineering, and linguistics. It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals.

Formal methods[edit]

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Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.[63] The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design. They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing. For industrial use, tool support is required. However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems, where safety or security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic calculi, formal languagesautomata theory, and program semantics, but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification.

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Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.[64] The field often involves disciplines of computer engineering and electrical engineering, selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance, and cost goals.

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Computer performance analysis is the study of work flowing through computers with the general goals of improving throughput, controlling response time, using resources efficiently, eliminating bottlenecks, and predicting performance under anticipated peak loads.[65] Benchmarks are used to compare the performance of systems carrying different chips and/or system architectures.[66]

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Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other.[67] A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri netsprocess calculi and the Parallel Random Access Machine model.[68] When multiple computers are connected in a network while using concurrency, this is known as a distributed system. Computers within that distributed system have their own private memory, and information can be exchanged to achieve common goals.[69]

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This branch of computer science aims to manage networks between computers worldwide.

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Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying the software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software. Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn’t just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal arrangement and maintenance.

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The philosopher of computing Bill Rapaport noted three Great Insights of Computer Science:[71]

All the information about any computable problem can be represented using only 0 and 1 (or any other bistable pair that can flip-flop between two easily distinguishable states, such as “on/off”, “magnetized/de-magnetized”, “high-voltage/low-voltage”, etc.).
  • Alan Turing‘s insight: there are only five actions that a computer has to perform in order to do “anything”.
Every algorithm can be expressed in a language for a computer consisting of only five basic instructions:[72]

  • move left one location;
  • move right one location;
  • read symbol at current location;
  • print 0 at current location;
  • print 1 at current location.
  • Corrado Böhm and Giuseppe Jacopini‘s insight: there are only three ways of combining these actions (into more complex ones) that are needed in order for a computer to do “anything”.[73]
Only three rules are needed to combine any set of basic instructions into more complex ones:

  • sequence: first do this, then do that;
  • selection: IF such-and-such is the case, THEN do this, ELSE do that;
  • repetition: WHILE such-and-such is the case, DO this.
Note that the three rules of Boehm’s and Jacopini’s insight can be further simplified with the use of goto (which means it is more elementary than structured programming).

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Programming languages can be used to accomplish different tasks in different ways. Common programming paradigms include:

  • Functional programming, a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. It is a declarative programming paradigm, which means programming is done with expressions or declarations instead of statements.[74]
  • Imperative programming, a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program’s state.[75] In much the same way that the imperative mood in natural languages expresses commands, an imperative program consists of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming focuses on describing how a program operates.
  • Object-oriented programming, a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object’s procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated. Thus object-oriented computer programs are made out of objects that interact with one another.[76]

Many languages offer support for multiple paradigms, making the distinction more a matter of style than of technical capabilities.[77]

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Conferences are important events for computer science research. During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Unlike in most other academic fields, in computer science, the prestige of conference papers is greater than that of journal publications.[78][79] One proposed explanation for this is the quick development of this relatively new field requires rapid review and distribution of results, a task better handled by conferences than by journals.[80]

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Computer Science, known by its near synonyms, ComputingComputer StudiesInformation Technology (IT) and Information and Computing Technology (ICT), has been taught in UK schools since the days of batch processingmark sensitive cards and paper tape but usually to a select few students.[81] In 1981, the BBC produced a micro-computer and classroom network and Computer Studies became common for GCE O level students (11–16-year-old), and Computer Science to A level students. Its importance was recognised, and it became a compulsory part of the National Curriculum, for Key Stage 3 & 4. In September 2014 it became an entitlement for all pupils over the age of 4.[82]

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In the US, with 14,000 school districts deciding the curriculum, provision was fractured.[83] According to a 2010 report by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA), only 14 out of 50 states have adopted significant education standards for high school computer science.[84]

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Israel, New Zealand, and South Korea have included computer science in their national secondary education curricula,[85][86] and several others are following.[87]

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Computer engineering (CpE) is a branch of engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.[1] Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering (or electrical engineering), software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollersmicroprocessorspersonal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work but also how they integrate into the larger picture.[2]

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Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems. Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motorscommunications, and sensors.

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Computer engineering began in 1939 when John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry began developing the world’s first electronic digital computer through physicsmathematics, and electrical engineering. John Vincent Atanasoff was once a physics and mathematics teacher for Iowa State University and Clifford Berry a former graduate under electrical engineering and physics. Together, they created the Atanasoff-Berry computer, also known as the ABC which took 5 years to complete.[7] While the original ABC was dismantled and discarded in the 1940s a tribute was made to the late inventors, a replica of the ABC was made in 1997 where it took a team of researchers and engineers four years and $350,000 to build.[8]

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The modern personal computer emerged in the 1970s, after several breakthroughs in semiconductor technology. These include the first working transistor by William ShockleyJohn Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947,[9] the silicon surface passivation process (via thermal oxidation) by Mohamed Atalla at Bell Labs in 1957,[10][11][12] the monolithic integrated circuit chip by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959,[13] the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959,[14][15][16] and the single-chip microprocessor (Intel 4004) by Federico FagginMarcian HoffMasatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor at Intel in 1971.[17]

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The first computer engineering degree program in the United States was established in 1971 at Case Western Reserve University in ClevelandOhio.[18] As of 2015, there were 250 ABET-accredited computer engineering programs in the U.S.[19] In Europe, accreditation of computer engineering schools is done by a variety of agencies part of the EQANIE network. Due to increasing job requirements for engineers who can concurrently design hardware, software, firmware, and manage all forms of computer systems used in industry, some tertiary institutions around the world offer a bachelor’s degree generally called computer engineering. Both computer engineering and electronic engineering programs include analog and digital circuit design in their curriculum. As with most engineering disciplines, having a sound knowledge of mathematics and science is necessary for computer engineers.

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Computer engineering is referred to as computer science and engineering at some universities. Most entry-level computer engineering jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering (or computer science and engineering). Typically one must learn an array of mathematics such as calculusalgebra and trigonometry and some computer science classes.[citation needed] Sometimes a degree in electronic engineering is accepted, due to the similarity of the two fields. Because hardware engineers commonly work with computer software systems, a strong background in computer programming is necessary. According to BLS, “a computer engineering major is similar to electrical engineering but with some computer science courses added to the curriculum”.[20] Some large firms or specialized jobs require a master’s degree.

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It is also important for computer engineers to keep up with rapid advances in technology. Therefore, many continue learning throughout their careers. This can be helpful, especially when it comes to learning new skills or improving existing ones. For example, as the relative cost of fixing a bug increases the further along it is in the software development cycle, there can be greater cost savings attributed to developing and testing for quality code as soon as possible in the process, and particularly before release.[21]

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According to the BLS, Job Outlook employment for computer hardware engineers, the expected ten-year growth from 2014 to 2024 for computer hardware engineering was an estimated 3% and there was a total of 77,700 jobs that same year. (“Slower than average” in their own words when compared to other occupations)”[22] and is down from 7% for the 2012 to 2022 BLS estimate[22] and is further down from 9% in the BLS 2010 to 2020 estimate.” Today, computer hardware is somehow equal[clarification needed] to electronic and computer engineering (ECE) and has been divided into many subcategories; the most significant[citation needed] is embedded system design.[20]

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According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), “computer applications software engineers and computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the faster than average growing occupations” The expected ten-year growth as of 2014 for computer software engineering was an estimated seventeen percent and there was a total of 1,114,000 jobs that same year.[23] This is down from the 2012 to 2022 BLS estimate of 22% for software developers.[24][23] And, further down from the 30% 2010 to 2020 BLS estimate.[25] In addition, growing concerns over cybersecurity add up to put computer software engineering high above the average rate of increase for all fields. However, some of the work will be outsourced in foreign countries[26]. Due to this, job growth will not be as fast as during the last decade, as jobs that would have gone to computer software engineers in the United States would instead go to computer software engineers in countries such as India.[27] In addition, the BLS Job Outlook for Computer Programmers, 2014–24 has an −8% (a decline, in their words)[27] for those who program computers (i.e. embedded systems) who are not computer application developers.[28][29] Furthermore, women in software fields has been declining over the years even faster than other engineering fields[30].

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Computer engineering is generally practiced within larger product development firms, and such practice may not be subject to licensing.[31][32] However, independent consultants who advertise computer engineering, just like any form of engineering, may be subject to state laws which restrict professional engineer practice to only those who have received the appropriate License.[33][34] National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) first offered a Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination for computer engineering[35] in 2003.

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There are many specialty areas in the field of computer engineering.

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Computer programming.

Computer engineers work in coding, cryptography, and information protection to develop new methods for protecting various information, such as digital images and music, fragmentation, copyright infringement and other forms of tampering. Examples include work on wireless communications, multi-antenna systems, optical transmission, and digital watermarking.[36]

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Those focusing on communications and wireless networks, work advancements in telecommunications systems and networks (especially wireless networks), modulation and error-control coding, and information theory. High-speed network design, interference suppression and modulation, design, and analysis of fault-tolerant system, and storage and transmission schemes are all a part of this specialty.[36]

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Windows 10, an example of an operating system.

This specialty focuses on compilers and operating systems design and development. Engineers in this field develop new operating system architecture, program analysis techniques, and new techniques to assure quality. Examples of work in this field include post-link-time code transformation algorithm development and new operating system development.[36]

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Computational science and engineering is a relatively new discipline. According to the Sloan Career Cornerstone Center, individuals working in this area, “computational methods are applied to formulate and solve complex mathematical problems in engineering and the physical and the social sciences. Examples include aircraft design, the plasma processing of nanometer features on semiconductor wafers, VLSI circuit design, radar detection systems, ion transport through biological channels, and much more”.[36]

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In this specialty, engineers build integrated environments for computing, communications, and information access. Examples include shared-channel wireless networks, adaptive resource management in various systems, and improving the quality of service in mobile and ATM environments. Some other examples include work on wireless network systems and fast Ethernet cluster wired systems.[36]

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An example of a computer CPU.

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Engineers working in computer systems work on research projects that allow for reliable, secure, and high-performance computer systems. Projects such as designing processors for multi-threading and parallel processing are included in this field. Other examples of work in this field include development of new theories, algorithms, and other tools that add performance to computer systems.[36]

Computer architecture includes CPU designcache hierarchy layout, memory organization and load balancing.

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An example of a humanoid robot.

In this specialty, computer engineers focus on developing visual sensing technology to sense an environment, representation of an environment, and manipulation of the environment. The gathered three-dimensional information is then implemented to perform a variety of tasks. These include improved human modeling, image communication, and human-computer interfaces, as well as devices such as special-purpose cameras with versatile vision sensors.[36]

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Examples of devices that use embedded systems.

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Individuals working in this area design technology for enhancing the speed, reliability, and performance of systems. Embedded systems are found in many devices from a small FM radio to the space shuttle. According to the Sloan Cornerstone Career Center, ongoing developments in embedded systems include “automated vehicles and equipment to conduct search and rescue, automated transportation systems, and human-robot coordination to repair equipment in space.”[36] As of 2018, computer embedded computer engineering specializations include system-on-chip design, architecture of edge computing and the Internet of things.

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This specialty of computer engineering requires adequate knowledge of electronics and electrical systems. Engineers working in this area work on enhancing the speed, reliability, and energy efficiency of next-generation very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits and microsystems. An example of this specialty is work done on reducing the power consumption of VLSI algorithms and architecture.[36]

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Computer engineers in this area develop improvements in human-computer interaction, including speech recognition and synthesis, medical and scientific imaging, or communications systems. Other work in this area includes computer vision development such as recognition of human facial features.[36]

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In many institutions of higher learning, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one or two years of general engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus.[3][4][5][6]

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lectrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricityelectronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electrical power generation, distribution and use.

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Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields, including computer engineeringpower engineeringtelecommunicationsradio-frequency engineeringsignal processinginstrumentation, and electronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics, electromagnetics and waves, microwave engineeringnanotechnologyelectrochemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, and electrical materials science.[a]

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Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body or an international standards organization. These include the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (formerly the IEE).

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Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from circuit theory to the management skills of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.

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Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th centuryWilliam Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, and was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity. He is credited with establishing the term “electricity”.[2] He also designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects. In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Wilcke invented a device later named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery.

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The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology

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In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor,[3] of Michael Faraday (the discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831), and of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism.[4]

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In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin probably the world’s first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet. This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph that moved gold leaf through electrical conduction.

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In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803–1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was very innovative though it was greatly influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water.[5] Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the later 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.[6][7] Over 50 years later, he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers (soon to be renamed the Institution of Electrical Engineers) where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort.[8] By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, and, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy.

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Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure. They led to the international standardization of the units voltamperecoulombohmfarad, and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893.[9] The publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, and in many countries, the definitions were immediately recognized in relevant legislation.[10]

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During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature. The Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world’s first department of electrical engineering in 1882 and introduced the first degree course in electrical engineering in 1883.[11] The first electrical engineering degree program in the United States was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the physics department under Professor Charles Cross, [12] though it was Cornell University to produce the world’s first electrical engineering graduates in 1885.[13] 

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The first course in electrical engineering was taught in 1883 in Cornell’s Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts.[14] It was not until about 1885 that Cornell President Andrew Dickson White established the first Department of Electrical Engineering in the United States.[15] In the same year, University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in Great Britain.[16] Professor Mendell P. Weinbach at University of Missouri soon followed suit by establishing the electrical engineering department in 1886.[17] Afterwards, universities and institutes of technology gradually started to offer electrical engineering programs to their students all over the world.

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During these decades use of electrical engineering increased dramatically. In 1882, Thomas Edison switched on the world’s first large-scale electric power network that provided 110 volts — direct current (DC) — to 59 customers on Manhattan Island in New York City. In 1884, Sir Charles Parsons invented the steam turbine allowing for more efficient electric power generation. Alternating current, with its ability to transmit power more efficiently over long distances via the use of transformers, developed rapidly in the 1880s and 1890s with transformer designs by Károly ZipernowskyOttó Bláthy and Miksa Déri (later called ZBD transformers), Lucien GaulardJohn Dixon Gibbs and William Stanley, Jr.. Practical AC motor designs including induction motors were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla and further developed into a practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown.[18] Charles Steinmetz and Oliver Heaviside contributed to the theoretical basis of alternating current engineering.[19][20] The spread in the use of AC set off in the United States what has been called the war of the currents between a George Westinghouse backed AC system and a Thomas Edison backed DC power system, with AC being adopted as the overall standard.[21]

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Early 20th century[edit]

 

Guglielmo Marconi, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission.

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During the development of radio, many scientists and inventors contributed to radio technology and electronics. The mathematical work of James Clerk Maxwell during the 1850s had shown the relationship of different forms of electromagnetic radiation including the possibility of invisible airborne waves (later called “radio waves”). In his classic physics experiments of 1888, Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell’s theory by transmitting radio waves with a spark-gap transmitter, and detected them by using simple electrical devices. Other physicists experimented with these new waves and in the process developed devices for transmitting and detecting them.

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In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi began work on a way to adapt the known methods of transmitting and detecting these “Hertzian waves” into a purpose built commercial wireless telegraphic system. Early on, he sent wireless signals over a distance of one and a half miles. In December 1901, he sent wireless waves that were not affected by the curvature of the Earth. Marconi later transmitted the wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and St. John’s, Newfoundland, a distance of 2,100 miles (3,400 km).[22]

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Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60 GHz in his experiments.[23] He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves,[24] when he patented the radio crystal detector in 1901.[25][26]

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In 1897, Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope, a crucial enabling technology for electronic television.[27] John Fleming invented the first radio tube, the diode, in 1904. Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode.[28]

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In 1920, Albert Hull developed the magnetron which would eventually lead to the development of the microwave oven in 1946 by Percy Spencer.[29][30] In 1934, the British military began to make strides toward radar (which also uses the magnetron) under the direction of Dr Wimperis, culminating in the operation of the first radar station at Bawdsey in August 1936.[31]

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In 1941, Konrad Zuse presented the Z3, the world’s first fully functional and programmable computer using electromechanical parts. In 1943, Tommy Flowers designed and built the Colossus, the world’s first fully functional, electronic, digital and programmable computer.[32][33] In 1946, the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) of John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly followed, beginning the computing era. The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives.[34]

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A replica of the first working transistor, a point-contact transistor.

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Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), the basic building of modern electronics.

The first working transistor was a point-contact transistor invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain while working under William Shockley at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in 1947.[35] They then invented the bipolar junction transistor in 1948.[36] While early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis,[37] they opened the door for more compact devices.[38]

The surface passivation process, which electrically stabilized silicon surfaces via thermal oxidation, was developed by Mohamed M. Atalla at BTL in 1957. This led to the development of the monolithic integrated circuit chip.[39][40][41] The first integrated circuits were the hybrid integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in 1958 and the monolithic integrated circuit chip invented by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959.[42]

The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at BTL in 1959.[43][44][45] It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.[37] It revolutionized the electronics industry,[46][47] becoming the most widely used electronic device in the world.[44][48][49] The MOSFET is the basic element in most modern electronic equipment,[50][51] and has been central to the electronics revolution,[52] the microelectronics revolution,[53] and the Digital Revolution.[45][54][55][56] The MOSFET has thus been credited as the birth of modern electronics,[57][58] and possibly the most important invention in electronics.[59]

Computer security is a branch of computer technology with an objective of protecting information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users. Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding (encryption) and therefore deciphering (decryption) information. Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity.