What’s the Purpose of inc and lib Folders

What’s the Purpose of inc and lib Folders

WordPress Directories

WordPress inc and lib folders (directories) aren’t something that I would say belong solely in themes or only in plugins. Instead, I’ve used the inc directory and lib directory in both themes and plugins.

The inc Directory

As my general rule, I use the inc directory primarily to place collections of functions that are related to core functionality but aren’t necessarily meant to clutter up the primary core of the theme or plugin.

For Themes

For example, if I’m working on a theme and I have a collection of functions for said theme that I use as helper functions, I’d much rather create inc/helpers.php than to drop them in functions.php. Over time, more helpers can be added.

In more specific cases, I also use the inc directory as a way to store core theme files such as theme-customizer.php or custom-header.php. This way, these files are focused solely on a single purpose and are easier to maintain over time. Plus, they are self-descriptive.

This keeps functions.php lean, and it keeps procedural programming files slightly more organized than having one giant “god-file” by the time of delivery.

For Plugins

In the case of plugins, I generally use object-oriented programming so the inc directory is normally used to hold additional classes that I write that are used as part of the core plugin file, but are dependencies.

This means that if I have the core plugin that depends on, say, a custom CSV parser or a serialization / de-serialization class, then these files would reside in inc.

The lib Directory

In short, the lib directory is used for third-party libraries. That is, these are used to make sure that I place code written by another author or team of developers in a place that I can easily retrieve (and attribute – don’t forget! :)) in my project.

The thing about third-party libraries is that they aren’t always PHP-based. Instead, they may be JavaScript based, CSS based, or a combination of all three. In that case, I have to take it case-by-case.

If it’s a third-party JavaScript library such as say, FitVids, then I’ll have a directory js/lib/jquery.fitvid.js. Similarly, if there’s a CSS libraries that I’m using, like Foundation, then I’ll drop those files in css/lib/foundation.css.

Finally, if there is a library that is composed of JavaScript and CSS and/or PHP, then I normally drop them in the lib directory in the root of the theme or plugin because most of those files will have dependencies on one another and it’s significantly more painful to try to go through and update all of the relative path references especially when you have to repeat the process when there’s an update.

Also, I know that an alternative to this is using a vendors directory. Though I’ve seen the convention and think it’s just as good, I’ve personally just stuck with lib.


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What is Javascript?

What is Javascript?

Welcome to the wtg guide for What is Javascript.

JavaScript (often shortened to JS) is a lightweight, interpreted, object-oriented language with first-class functions, most known as the scripting language for Web pages, but used in many non-browser environments as well such as node.js. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic, and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. Javascript is also embedded in a variety of applications created with frameworks such as Electron and Cordova.

Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web. JavaScript enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. The vast majority of websites use it for client-side page behavior, and all major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.

As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative programming styles. It has application programming interfaces (APIs) for working with text, dates, regular expressions, standard data structures, and the Document Object Model (DOM). However, the language itself does not include any input/output (I/O), such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, as the host environment (usually a web browser) provides those APIs.

JavaScript was initially created to “make web pages alive”.

The programs in this language are called scripts. They can be written right in a web page’s HTML and run automatically as the page loads.

Scripts are provided and executed as plain text. They don’t need special preparation or compilation to run.

JavaScript is not to be confused with the Java programming language. Java is a trademark or registered trademark of Oracle in the U.S. and other countries.

Creation at Netscape

The Mosaic web browser was released in 1993. As the first browser with a graphical user interface accessible to non-technical people, it played a prominent role in the rapid growth of the nascent World Wide Web. The lead developers of Mosaic then founded the Netscape corporation, which released a more polished browser, Netscape Navigator, in 1994. Navigator quickly became the most used browser.

During these formative years of the Web, web pages could only be static, lacking the capability for dynamic behavior after the page was loaded in the browser. There was a desire in the burgeoning web development scene to remove this limitation, so in 1995, Netscape decided to add a scripting language to Navigator. They pursued two routes to achieve this: collaborating with Sun Microsystems to embed the Java programming language, while also hiring Brendan Eich to embed the Scheme language.

Netscape management soon decided that the best option was for Eich to devise a new language, with syntax similar to Java and less like Scheme or other extant scripting languages. Although the new language and its interpreter implementation were officially called LiveScript when first shipped as part of a Navigator release in September 1995, the name was changed to JavaScript three months later.

The choice of the JavaScript name has caused confusion, sometimes giving the impression that it is a spin-off of Java. Since Java was the hot new programming language at the time, this has been characterized as a marketing ploy by Netscape to give its own new language cachet.

Adoption by Microsoft
Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995, leading to a browser war with Netscape. On the JavaScript front, Microsoft reverse-engineered the Navigator interpreter to create its own, called JScript.

JScript was first released in 1996, alongside initial support for CSS and extensions to HTML. Each of these implementations was noticeably different from their counterparts in Navigator. These differences made it difficult for developers to make their websites work well in both browsers, leading to widespread use of “best viewed in Netscape” and “best viewed in Internet Explorer” logos for several years.

The rise of JScript

In November 1996, Netscape submitted JavaScript to ECMA International, as the starting point for a standard specification that all browser vendors could conform to. This led to the official release of the first ECMAScript language specification in June 1997.

The standards process continued for a few years, with the release of ECMAScript 2 in June 1998 and ECMAScript 3 in December 1999. Work on ECMAScript 4 began in 2000.

Meanwhile, Microsoft gained an increasingly dominant position in the browser market. By the early 2000s, Internet Explorer’s market share reached 95%. This meant that JScript became the de facto standard for client-side scripting on the Web.

Microsoft initially participated in the standards process and implemented some proposals in its JScript language, but eventually it stopped collaborating on ECMA work. Thus ECMAScript 4 was mothballed.

Growth and standardization

During the period of Internet Explorer dominance in the early 2000s, client-side scripting was stagnant. This started to change in 2004, when the successor of Netscape, Mozilla, released the Firefox browser. Firefox was well-received by many, taking significant market share from Internet Explorer.

In 2005, Mozilla joined ECMA International, and work started on the ECMAScript for XML (E4X) standard. This led to Mozilla working jointly with Macromedia (later acquired by Adobe Systems), who were implementing E4X in their ActionScript 3 language, which was based on an ECMAScript 4 draft. The goal became standardizing ActionScript 3 as the new ECMAScript 4. To this end, Adobe Systems released the Tamarin implementation as an open source project. However, Tamarin and ActionScript 3 were too different from established client-side scripting, and without cooperation from Microsoft, ECMAScript 4 never reached fruition.

Meanwhile, very important developments were occurring in open source communities not affiliated with ECMA work. In 2005, Jesse James Garrett released a white paper in which he coined the term Ajax and described a set of technologies, of which JavaScript was the backbone, to create web applications where data can be loaded in the background, avoiding the need for full page reloads. This sparked a renaissance period of JavaScript, spearheaded by open source libraries and the communities that formed around them. Many new libraries were created, including jQuery, Prototype, Dojo Toolkit, and MooTools.

Google debuted its Chrome browser in 2008, with the V8 JavaScript engine that was the first to use just-in-time compilation, significantly improving execution times. Other browser vendors needed to overhaul their engines to compete.

In July 2008, these disparate parties came together for a conference in Oslo. This led to the eventual agreement in early 2009 to combine all relevant work and drive the language forward. The result was the ECMAScript 5 standard, released in December 2009.

Reaching maturity

Ambitious work on the language continued for several years, culminating in an extensive collection of additions and refinements being formalized with the publication of ECMAScript 6 in 2015.

From 2016 to 2019, a new version of the ECMAScript standard was published each year, but the scope of changes was much smaller than the 5th or 6th editions. Thus JavaScript can now be considered a mature language that has largely settled down.

The current JavaScript ecosystem has many libraries and frameworks, established programming practices, and increased usage of JavaScript outside of web browsers. Plus, with the rise of single-page applications and other JavaScript-heavy websites, a number of transpilers have been created to aid the development process.

Trademark

“JavaScript” is a trademark of Oracle Corporation in the United States. It is used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape Communications and other parties.

Website client-side usage

JavaScript is the dominant client-side scripting language of the Web, with 95% of websites using it for this purpose. Scripts are embedded in or included from HTML documents and interact with the DOM. All major web browsers have a built-in JavaScript engine that executes the code on the user’s device.

Examples of scripted behavior

  • Loading new page content without reloading the page. For example, social media websites use Ajax so that users can post new messages without leaving the page.
  • Animation of page elements, such as fading them in and out, resizing, and moving them.
  • Interactive content, such as games and video.
  • Validating input values of a web form to make sure that they are acceptable before being submitted to the server.
  • Transmitting information about the user’s behavior for analytics, ad tracking, and personalization.

Libraries and frameworks

The majority of websites use a third-party JavaScript library or web application framework as part of their client-side page scripting.

jQuery is the most popular library, used by over 70% of websites.

The Angular framework was created by Google for its web services; it is now open source and used by other websites. Likewise, Facebook created the React framework for its website and later released it as open source; other sites, including Twitter, now use it. There are other open source frameworks in use, such as Backbone.js and Vue.js.

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Intro to CSS Transitions and Animations 2020

Intro to CSS Transitions and Animations 2020

Welcome to the wtg guide for Intro to CSS Transitions and Animations.

What Are CSS Transitions and Animations?

The evolution of CSS over the years has lead to some really amazing innovations within the language. In the case of transitions and animations, what previously required a program like Adobe Flash or another coding language altogether (such as Javascript) is now possible with nothing but HTML and CSS.

This kind of language maturity, enabled by better browsers and higher web standards (among other things), has been a huge boon to web designers who double as front end developers. They can now do more with less and the whole process of web design/development has become a bit easier.

Nevertheless, CSS transitions and animations are still considered advanced uses of CSS. A spectrum of coding I try to stay away from in most of my articles since I do not consider myself an “advanced developer”–even in language as accessible as HTML or CSS.

That said though, after reading up on W3Schools and elsewhere I think a sufficiently simple introduction to these concepts is within the grasp of not only myself but a good deal of the WTG readership as well.

To begin, I think we need to have a really good idea of what, exactly, CSS transitions and animations are before jumping into examples and code.

CSS Transitions

A CSS transition allows you to change the property values of an element over a given duration that you set. To create a transition you must first identify which CSS property you want to add an effect to and then specify the duration of the effect. If no duration is set, the transition will not occur.

There are four transition properties:

transition-delay – specifies the delay, in seconds (s), you would like to assign your transition effect.

transition-duration – specifies the duration, in seconds (s) or milliseconds (ms), you would like to assign your transition effect.

transition-property – specifies the name of the CSS property your transition effect is meant for.

transition-timing-function – Specifies the speed curve of the transition effect. Meaning, the type of speed variation you want to select for your transition effect. There is no “fast” or “slow” options. Instead there are speed curve options that go from one speed to another. Such as “ease” which tells your effect to start slow, then go fast, then end slowly.

To create a transition you only need to change one of these properties over the duration you choose. However, it is possible to change more than one property at the same time; resulting in more dramatic transitions.

CSS Animations

Where CSS transitions are all about altering element properties as they move from state to state, CSS animations are dependent on keyframes and animation properties.

keyframes – keyframes are used to define the styles an element will have at various times.

animation properties – animation properties are used to assign @keyframes to a specific element and determine how it is animated.

There are eight animation properties:

animation-delay – specifies a delay for the start of an animation.

animation-direction – specifies whether an animation should play in reverse direction or alternate cycles.

animation-duration – specifies how many seconds or milliseconds an animation takes to complete one cycle.

animation-fill-mode – specifies a style for the element when the animation is not playing. Such as when it is finished or when it has a delay.

animation-iteration-count – specifies the number of times an animation should be played.

animation-name – specifies the name of the @keyframes animation.

animation-play-state – specifies whether the animation is running or paused.

animation-timing-function – specifies the speed curve of the animation.

The examples below will show you how these things are used together in various ways. Once you understand the relationships between them you’ll be able to figure out all kinds of interesting ways to use them.

A Quick Note on Vendor Prefixes

In your personal usage of CSS transitions and animations you will most likely need to use vendor prefixes. In some of the code below you will no doubt notice some vendor prefixes. Many of the source examples do not contain vendor prefixes, so if you want to see what the code looks like without them you can check there; I thought it might be helpful to provide a fuller picture.

For the uninitiated, when I say “vendor prefix” I’m referring to a prefix that needs to be added to your CSS based on the range of browsers you want to support your transitions and animations.

A good resource for identifying the necessary prefixes for each browser is caniuse.com. You can also check out the respective pages for transitions and animations on W3Schools. Or, if you’d like to avoid the mess of prefixes altogether, you can use a tool like Bourbon.io.

CSS Transition Examples

The CSS transition examples below are all transitions I’ve found from various sources that show what’s possible with these relatively new CSS capabilities. I’ve chosen to recreate the examples I found using CodePen so you can easily take a peak at the HTML and CSS required for each example while also seeing it in action
1. Linear

Example via.

2. Spin

Example via.

3. Color

Example via.

4. Square to Circle

Example via.

5. Card

Example via.

CSS Animation Examples

Again, the CSS animation examples below are from various sources around the web. Just as above, the CodePen allows you to see the animation and the required code in one place. You can also follow my source links to get more information (in some cases) on each example.
1. Pulse

Example via.

2. Shake

Example via.

3. Bouncing

Example via.

4. Bounce In

Example via.

5. Linear Bar

Example via.

Potential Use Cases for CSS Transitions & Animations

As I mentioned above, CSS transitions and animations are ideal for creating compelling and delightful microinteractions across your website. A lot of great WordPress themes and plugins come with some of these behaviors in place. A good example being the Divi Builder, which allows you to control transitions and animations within its module controls.

You may however wish to take the basics above and apply them other areas of your site in which a theme or plugin author has not given you easy control over. The following ideas might help you get started.

  • An email opt-in form that makes a delightful entrance and exist; such as bouncing in and folding closed to disappear.
  • A form that shakes when the essential information is not and someone attempt to submit it as finished.
  • Buttons that fold open, bounce, shake, or in some other way respond to hovering and clicking.
  • Preview images that turn over to reveal more information.
  • Subtle background graphics that move, creating depth.
  • Beautiful charts that spring into action as they load.
  • Google Doodle style experiments, logos, and more.
  • Games (for the really ambitious).
  • Ads that you can interact with or that subtly change shape to draw attention.
  • Beautiful product displays that rotate and respond to the mouse.
  • Beautiful stat counters.
  • And whatever else your imagination can think up.

Inspiring Showcases of CSS Transitions and Animations

If you need more visual stimulus than a list of ideas, I’ve take the liberty of compiling a small but impressive showcase of inspiring CSS transitions and animations that I hope will show off the potential illustrated in the rather basic examples I created above.

Logos in Pure CSS

Logos-In-Pure-CSS

Logos in Pure CSS is a great showcase of world famous logos re-created with nothing but CSS. In their current form they use animations and transitions to show how they are made and how they stack up against their traditional counterparts. However, I think it’s important to note that just creating your logo in HTML/CSS opens up a lot of interesting possibilities.

Go to Logos in Pure CSS

CSS A/Z

CSS-A-Z

CSS A/Z is a showcase of HTML/CSS animated sketches; one for each letter of the alphabet. Great stuff and a lot of ideas for sprucing up seemingly insignificant elements on your website.

Go to CSS A/Z

Double Ring

Double-ring

I think Double Ring is a great example of something you could do with a logo to make it more eye catching and interesting.

Go to Double Ring

Navigation Bar

nav-bar

Navigation Bar is an example of just how dynamic and beautiful something as standard as navigation can become when given some advanced CSS love.

Go to Navigation Bar

In Pieces

In-Pieces

In Pieces is a magnificent (and highly complex) use case of CSS animation. It’s an interactive exhibition of the evolution of 30 species of animals. Truly breathtaking and a great indicator of just how powerful a tool CSS can be.

Go to In Pieces

Additional Resources & Tutorials

In your quest to master CSS transitions and animations, there is a good chance that you’ll need or want more detail than I am able to provide in this post. Additionally, someone else’s writing style may be a bette fit for the way you think. That’s why I’ve compiled a short list of other useful resources and tutorials below for you to take advantage of.

In Conclusion

CSS transitions and animations are an extremely useful and versatile set of capabilities. You can do small subtle things or big in-your-face impressive things. But either way, it all starts with mastering the basics and moving on from there.

I hope this post is a welcome change of pace for those who have been requesting more CSS related content. If you have any more thoughts or requests on this post or future posts then please feel free to drop us a line in the comments section below.


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Intro to Cubic Bezier Transitions (CSS)

Intro to Cubic Bezier Transitions (CSS)

One of the most overlooked features of CSS transitions is the ability to specify a cubic-bezier transition.  For most projects the standard: ease, ease-in, ease-out, ease-in-out, and linear will do.

If you want your CSS animations to attain to another level or perhaps create a very specific (custom) effect, you should learn the basics of cubic-bezier (CSS) and the Cubic Bezier Curve.

Cubic Bezier Curve (definition):

Four points P0, P1, P2 and P3 in the plane or in higher-dimensional space define a cubic Bézier curve. The curve starts at P0 going toward P1 and arrives at P3 coming from the direction of P2. Usually, it will not pass through P1 or P2; these points are only there to provide directional information. The distance between P0 and P1 determines “how far” and “how fast” the curve moves towards P1 before turning towards P2.

Writing BPi,Pj,Pk(t) for the quadratic Bézier curve defined by points Pi, Pj, and Pk, the cubic Bézier curve can be defined as a linear combination of two quadratic Bézier curves:

\mathbf{B}(t)=(1-t)\mathbf{B}_{\mathbf P_0,\mathbf P_1,\mathbf P_2}(t) + t \mathbf{B}_{\mathbf P_1,\mathbf P_2,\mathbf P_3}(t) \mbox{ , } 0 \le t \le 1.

The explicit form of the curve is:

\mathbf{B}(t)=(1-t)^3\mathbf{P}_0+3(1-t)^2t\mathbf{P}_1+3(1-t)t^2\mathbf{P}_2+t^3\mathbf{P}_3 \mbox{ , } 0 \le t \le 1.

For some choices of P1 and P2 the curve may intersect itself, or contain a cusp.

Any series of any 4 distinct points can be converted to a cubic Bézier curve that goes through all 4 points in order. Given the starting and ending point of some cubic Bézier curve, and the points along the curve corresponding to t = 1/3 and t = 2/3, the control points for the original Bézier curve can be recovered.

CSS implementation:

Use the property “transition”,  with the value “cubic-bezier(n,n,n,n)”.  Possible values are numeric values from 0 to 1.

Written out (example) syntax:

#example {transition: 600ms cubic-bezier(0.83,0.22,0.8,1.31);}

Demo (hover)

Note the little bounce at the end.  That’s created by the last parameter of 1.31 that extends breifly past the normal numeric value (limit) of 1.  Again, a simple example of creating a unique and fine tuned animation. If you would like to get your hands a little dirty and experiment on your own, I would recommend heading over to cubic-bezier.com.

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CSS Animations vs. JavaScript 2020

CSS Animations vs. JavaScript 2020

Welcome to the wtg guide for CSS Animations vs. JavaScript 2020. Once upon a time, most developers used jQuery to animate things in the browser. Fade this, expand that; simple stuff. As interactive projects got more aggressive and mobile devices burst onto the scene, performance became increasingly important. Flash faded away and talented animators pressed HTML5 to do things it had never done before. They needed better tools for complex sequencing and top-notch performance. jQuery simply wasn’t designed for that. Browsers matured and started offering solutions.

The most widely-acclaimed solution was CSS Animations (and Transitions). The darling of the industry for years now, CSS Animations have been talked about endlessly at conferences where phrases like “hardware accelerated” and “mobile-friendly” tickle the ears of the audience. JavaScript-based animation was treated as if it was antiquated and “dirty”. But is it?

As someone who’s fascinated (bordering on obsessed, actually) with animation and performance, I eagerly jumped on the CSS bandwagon. I didn’t get far, though, before I started uncovering a bunch of major problems that nobody was talking about. I was shocked.

This article is meant to raise awareness about some of the more significant shortcomings of CSS-based animation so that you can avoid the headaches I encountered, and make a more informed decision about when to use JS and when to use CSS for animation.

Lack of independent scale/rotation/position control

Animating the scale, rotation, and position of an element is incredibly common. In CSS, they’re all crammed into one “transform” property, making them impossible to animate in a truly distinct way on a single element. For example, what if you want to animate “rotation” and “scale” independently, with different timings and eases? Maybe an element is continuously pulsing (oscillating scale) and you’d like to rotate it on rollover. That’s only possible with JavaScript.

In my opinion, this is a glaring weakness in CSS but if you only do simpler animations that animate the entire transform state at any given time, this won’t be an issue for you.

Performance

Most comparisons on the web pit CSS animations against jQuery since it is so pervasive (as if “JavaScript” and “jQuery” were synonymous) but jQuery is widely known to be quite slow in terms of animation performance. The newer GSAP is also JavaScript-based but it’s literally up to 20x faster than jQuery. So part of the reason JavaScript animation got a bad reputation is what I call the “jQuery factor”.

The most frequently cited reason for using CSS for animation is “hardware acceleration”. Sounds yummy, right? Let’s break it down into two parts:

GPU involvement

The GPU is highly optimized for tasks like moving pixels around and applying transform matrices and opacity, so modern browsers try to offload those tasks from the CPU to the GPU. The secret is to isolate the animated elements onto their own GPU layers because once a layer is created (as long as its native pixels don’t change), it’s trivial for the GPU to move those pixels around and composite them together. Instead of calculating every single pixel 60 times per second, it can save chunks of pixels (as layers) and just say “move that chunk 10 pixels over and 5 pixels down” (or whatever).

Side note: It’s not wise to give every element its own layer because GPUs have limited video memory. If you run out, things will drastically slow down.

Declaring your animations in CSS allows the browser to determine which elements should get GPU layers, and divvy them up accordingly. Super.

But did you know you can do that with JavaScript too? Setting a transform with a 3D characteristic (like translate3d() or matrix3d()) triggers the browser to create a GPU layer for that element. So the GPU speed boost is not just for CSS animations – JavaScript animation can benefit too!

Also note that not all CSS properties get the GPU boost in CSS animations. In fact, most don’t. Transforms (scale, rotation, translation, and skew) and opacity are the primary beneficiaries. So don’t just assume that if you animate with CSS, everything magically gets GPU-juiced. That simply isn’t true.

Offloading calculations to a different thread

The other part of “hardware acceleration” has to do with being able to use a different CPU thread for animation-related calculations. Again, this sounds great in theory but it doesn’t come without costs, and developers often overestimate the benefits.

First of all, only properties that don’t affect document flow can truly be relegated to a different thread. So again, transforms and opacity are the primary beneficiaries. When you spin off other threads there’s overhead involved with managing that process. Since graphics rendering and document layout eat up the most processing resources (by FAR) in most animations (not calculating the intermediate values of property tweens), the benefit of using a separate thread for interpolation is minimal. For example, if 98% of the work during a particular animation is graphics rendering and document layout, and 2% is figuring out the new position/rotation/opacity/whatever values, even if you calculated them 10 times faster, you’d only see about a 1% speed boost overall.

Performance comparison

The stress test below creates a certain number of image elements (dots) and animates them from the center to random positions around the edges using random delays, creating a starfield effect. Crank up the number of dots and see how jQuery, GSAP, and Zepto compare. Since Zepto uses CSS transitions for all of its animations, it should perform best, right?

The results confirm what is widely reported on the web – CSS animations are significantly faster thanjQuery. However, on most devices and browsers I tested, the JavaScript-based GSAP performed even better than CSS animations (by a wide margin in some cases, like on the Microsoft Surface RT GSAP was probably at least 5 times faster than the CSS transitions created by Zepto, and on the iPad 3 iOS7 transforms were significantly faster when animated with GSAP instead of CSS transitions):

Animated propertiesBetter w/JavaScriptBetter w/CSS
top, left, width, heightWindows Surface RT, iPhone, iPad, iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Kindle Fire HD, IE(none)
transforms (translate/scale)Windows Surface RT, iPhone, iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Firefox, Opera, IEiPad, Safari, Chrome
Exactly how much “better”? The original version of the test had a frames-per-second counter for quantifiable results, but it quickly became apparent that there’s no truly accurate way to measure FPS across browsers especially with CSS animations, and certain browsers were reporting misleading numbers, so I removed it. You can easily gauge relative performance, though, by cranking up the number of dots, switching among engines, and watching how things perform (smooth movement, steady timing and dot dispersion, etc.). After all, the goal is to have animations look good.

Interesting things to note:

  • When animating top/left/width/height (properties that affect document flow), JavaScript was faster across the board (GSAP, not jQuery).
  • A few devices seemed highly optimized for transforms whereas others handled top/left/width/height animations better. Most notably, the older iOS6 was much better with CSS-animated transforms, but the newer iOS7 flip-flopped and now they are significantly slower.
  • There’s a substantial lag in the initial animation startup with CSS animations as the browser calculates layers and uploads the data to the GPU. This also applies to JavaScript-based 3D transforms, so “GPU acceleration” doesn’t come without its own costs.
  • Under heavy pressure, CSS transitions were more likely to spray out in bands/rings (this appears to be a synchronization/scheduling issue, possibly due to them being managed in a different thread).
  • In some browsers (like Chrome), when there were a very high number of dots animating, it completely killed the opacity fade of the text, but only when using CSS animations!

Although well-optimized JavaScript is often just as fast if not faster than CSS animations, 3D transforms do tend to be faster when animated with CSS, but that has a lot to do with the way browsers handle 16-element matrices today (forcing conversion from numbers to a concatenated string and back to numbers). Hopefully that’ll change, though. In most real-world projects, you’d never notice the performance difference anyway.

I’d encourage you to do your own testing to see which technology delivers the smoothest animation in your particular project(s). Don’t buy the myth that CSS animations are always faster, and also don’t assume that the speed test above reflects what you’d see in your apps. Test, test, test.

Runtime controls and events

Some browsers allow you to pause/resume a CSS keyframes animation, but that’s about it. You cannot seek to a particular spot in the animation, nor can you smoothly reverse part-way through or alter the time scale or add callbacks at certain spots or bind them to a rich set of playback events. JavaScript provides great control, as seen in the demo below.

Modern animation is very much tied to interactivity, so it’s incredibly useful to be able to animate from variable starting values to variable ending ones (maybe based on where the user clicks, for example), or change things on-the-fly but declarative CSS-based animation can’t do that.

Workflow

For simple transitions between two states (i.e. rollovers or expanding menus, etc.), CSS Transitions are great. For sequencing things, however, you generally need to use CSS keyframe animations which force you to define things in percentages, like:

@keyframes myAnimation {
  0% {
    opacity: 0;
    transform: translate(0, 0);
  }
  30% {
    opacity: 1;
    transform: translate(0, 0);
  }
  60% {
    transform: translate(100px, 0);
  }
  100% {
    transform: translate(100px, 100px);
  }
}
#box {
   animation: myAnimation 2.75s;
}

But when you’re animating, don’t you think in terms of time rather than percentages? Like “fade up the opacity for 1 second, then slide to the right for 0.75 seconds, and bounce down to a rest 1 second later”. What happens if you spend hours crafting a complicated sequence in percentages, and then the client says “make that part in the middle 3 seconds longer”? Ouch. You’d need to recalculate ALL of the percentages!

Usually building animations involves a lot of experimentation, especially with timing and eases. This is actually where a seek() method would be quite useful. Imagine building out a 60-second animation piece-by-piece and then finessing the final 5 seconds; you would need to sit through the first 55 seconds every time you want to see the results of your edits to the last parts. Yuck. With aseek() method, you could just drop that into place during production to skip to the part you’re working on, and then remove it when you’re done. Big time-saver.

It is becoming increasingly common to animate canvas-based objects and other 3rd-party library objects but unfortunately CSS animations can only target DOM elements. That means that if you invest a lot of time and energy in CSS animations, it won’t translate to those other types of projects. You’ll have to switch animation tool sets.

There are a few more workflow-related conveniences that are missing in CSS Animations:

  • Relative values. Like “animate the rotation 30 degrees more” or “move the element down 100px from where it is when the animation starts”.
  • Nesting. Imagine being able to create animations that can get nested into another animation which itself can be nested, etc. Imagine controlling that master animation while everything remains perfectly synchronized. This structure would promote modularized code that is much easier to produce and maintain.
  • Progress reporting. Is a particular animation finished? If not, exactly where is it at in terms of its progress?
  • Targeted kills. Sometimes it’s incredibly useful to kill all animations that are affecting the “scale” of an element (or whatever properties you want), while allowing the rest to continue.
  • Concise code. CSS keyframe animations are verbose even if you don’t factor in all the redundant vendor-prefixed versions necessary. Anyone who has tried building something even moderately complex will attest to the fact that CSS animations quickly get cumbersome and unwieldy. In fact, the sheer volume of CSS necessary to accomplish animation tasks can exceed the weight of a JavaScript library (which is easier to cache and reuse across many animations).

Limited effects

You can’t really do any of the following with CSS animations:

  • Animate along a curve (like a Bezier path).
  • Use interesting eases like elastic or bounce or a rough ease. There’s a cubic-bezier()option, but it only allows 2 control points, so it’s pretty limited.
  • Use different eases for different properties in a CSS keyframe animation; eases apply to the whole keyframe.
  • Physics-based motion. For example, the smooth momentum-based flicking and snap-back implemented in this Draggable demo.
  • Animate the scroll position
  • Directional rotation (like “animate to exactly 270 degrees in the shortest direction, clockwise or counter-clockwise”).
  • Animate attributes.

Compatibility

CSS-based animation doesn’t work in IE9 and earlier. Most of us hate supporting older browsers (especially IE), but the reality is that some of us have clients who require that support.

Browser prefixes are necessary for many browsers, but you can leverage preprocessing tools to avoid having to manually write them out.

Conclusion

Are CSS animations “bad”? Certainly not. In fact, they’re great for simple transitions between states (like rollovers) when compatibility with older browsers isn’t required. 3D transforms usually perform very well (iOS7 being a notable exception), and CSS animations can be very attractive for developers who prefer putting all of their animation and presentation logic in the CSS layer. However, JavaScript-based animation delivers far more flexibility, better workflow for complex animations and rich interactivity, and it often performs just as fast (or even faster) than CSS-based animation despite what you may have heard.

When compared to jQuery.animate(), I can understand why CSS Animations were so appealing. Who in their right mind wouldn’t jump at the chance to get a 10-fold performance boost? But it’s no longer a choice between jQuery and CSS Animations; JavaScript-based tools like GSAP open up entirely new possibilities and wipe out the performance gap.

This article isn’t about GSAP or any particular library; the point is that JavaScript-based animation doesn’t deserve a bad reputation. In fact, JavaScript is the only choice for a truly robust, flexible animation system. Plus, I wanted to shed some light on the frustrating parts of CSS animations (which nobody seems to talk about) so that you can ultimately make a more informed decision about how you animate in the browser.

Will the Web Animations spec solve things?

The W3C created a spec called Web Animations that aims to solve a lot of the deficiencies in CSS Animations and CSS Transitions, providing better runtime controls and extra features. It certainly seems like a step forward in many ways, but it still has shortcomings (some of which are probably impossible to overcome due to the need for legacy support of existing CSS specifications, so for example, independent transform component control is unlikely). There are definitely some smart guys who worked on the spec.


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