Best HP Monitor 2020

Best HP Monitor 2020

Best HP Monitor 2020 – Quick List

  1. HP 27Q Pavilion QHD Monitor  Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best Overall)
  2. HP Envy 34c QHD Curved Monitor – Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best Curved)
  3. HP OMEN QHD 165Hz Gaming Monitor – Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best HP Gaming Monitor)
  4. HP 23 FHD Monitor Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best HP Budget Monitor)

Best HP Monitor 2020

Welcome to the wtg buying guide for the Best HP Monitor 2020. We’ll provide an in-depth list of hp computer monitors that includes: the best hp monitor overall, the best hp curved monitor, the best hp gaming monitor, and the best hp budget monitor as well.

HP History

Hewlett-Packard (HP) has held its own in the competitive computer industry since 1939. They were pioneers in the tech industry and even inspired other great businesses such as Apple. They continue to make high quality computer products including monitors, that satisfy the high demands of content viewers and creators of today.

Now let’s take a look at the more in-depth list.

Best HP Monitor 2020 – In-Depth List

HP 27Q Pavilion QHD Monitor

Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best Overall)

Best HP Monitor Overall

The HP 27Q Pavilion is a newly released HP product for 2020 and has something for everyone. It made our best HP monitor list because of it’s spacious 27 inch screen that delivers ultra sharp details via QHD. With those key qualities it can increase productivity for work related tasks, and then seamlessly transition to any entertainment content of choice.

What may be surprising (in a good way) about the HP 27Q Pavilion, is the price. HP strives to make their products affordable to virtually everyone, while not comprising on quality. So everyone from a college student to a business professional should get their hands on this monitor while it’s still available.


HP Envy 34c QHD Curved Monitor

Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best HP Curved Monitor)

Best HP Curved Monitor

For those looking for a bit more than the HP 27Q Pavilion, and are willing to pay more… the HP Envy 34c may be exactly what you’re looking for.

It has a massive 34 inch curved screen that pulls you into whatever content your viewing. The WQHD resolution is virtually 4k so you’ll see every detail when streaming your favorite content or playing a pc game. The huge “real estate” (screen area) enables high level multi-tasking without the need for multiple monitors. It even has high quality speakers integrated to save space (compared to external speakers).

If you want a HP monitor that maximizes your productivity levels, as well as creating the ultimate viewing experience, you should get the HP Envy 34c.


HP OMEN QHD 165Hz Gaming Monitor

Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best HP Gaming Monitor)

Best HP Gaming Monitor

If gaming is your thing, the HP Omen is one of the most powerful monitors listed, which provides a blistering 165Hz refresh rate to ensure you have an edge over the competition. The screen is also larger than most at 27 inches.

The monitor not only performs but it also looks great. It seems to say with it’s inconspicuous style: I’m a serious gamer, and I strive for the top of the leaderboard.

The HP Omen is a gaming beast, and it should not be overlooked by serious gamers. Obtain this monitor while it is still in stock.


HP 23 FHD Monitor

Best HP Monitor 2020 (Best HP Budget Monitor)

Best HP Budget Monitor

Budget is considered by many when purchasing items online. The HP 23 provides a solution specifically for those who want a high quality HP monitor at a low price. It’s 23.8 inch screen is not the largest monitor, but for many with limited desk space it may be perfect.

It handles everything it should from microsoft word documents, browsing online, video content, to pc games. To sum it up, the HP 23 is a good monitor with a very affordable price.


Additional Monitors


Related Articles


hp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviewshp computer monitors
hp monitor with speakers
are hp monitors good
hp envy 34c review
hp 27q review
hp monitor review
cheap hp monitors
buy hp monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp 34c review
hp monitor price
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp external monitor
new hp monitor
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor reviewbest hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitors
are hp monitors good
buy hp monitor
hp monitor with speakers
hp 29 inch monitor
hp monitor review
hp 27q review
hp 26 inch monitor
cheap hp monitors
hp envy 34c review
hp monitors reviews
hp monitor price
hp 34c monitor
best hp computers
hp gaming monitors
hp monitor reviews
hp pavilion 27″ class qhd monitor
hp envy 32 monitor review
hp 27er monitor review
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
best hp monitor
best hp gaming monitor
best hp monitors
best hp monitor for photography
best hp monitor for photo editing
best hp monitor for graphic design
hp – 27es 27″ ips led fhd monitor – natural silver best price
best hp monitor to go with hp 590 series computer
best hp dual monitor docking station
hp 27″ computer monitor freesync best price
best portable monitor for hp elitebook
24 “best monitor for windows 10 hp
best hp monitor for mac
best setup for hp 27er gaming monitor
best hp monitor with vesa
what is the best monitor for an hp envy 13t
hp 25″ monitor best price
hp monitor or samsung monitor which is best
best monitor for windows 10 hp
hp monitor best color calibration
hp envy best monitor
best hp monitor 2017
best cords for hp laptop and double monitor setup
what is the best way to connect my hp elitebook to an external monitor?
best hp monitor for video editing under 200
best hp monitor for gaming
hp z24i monitor best cable
best hp monitor for home office
best monitor hp or dell
what is the best resolution for a hp 2311x monitor?
best 24 inch hp monitor
best soundbar for hp 32 monitor
hp elitedisplay e221i 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor best way to connect to laptop
hp monitor best color
best external monitor for hp 8760w
hp hpe-110f computer best type of hookup for the monitor hp 2159m
best usb c hub for hp spectre dual monitor
best 32 inch hp 4k monitor amazon
best hp z monitor for archtiects
hp 27″ monitor best price
best color calibrators for hp monitor windows 10
hp 27es monitor best price
hp 78534a monitor/terminal best use
best monitor for hp elite desktop
best external monitor donglefor hp spectre x360
best hp monitor for business
best monitor for an hp elitebook 840 g3
best 21 inch monitor hp
hp 25x monitor best specs
best external monitor for hp spectre x360
best gaming monitor 2018 hp
pc monitor the best hp vs dell
best viewing mode on hp omen monitor
hp monitor best price
what isthe best monitor for an hp pavillion
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor hp
best hp monitor for xbox one
best prices for hp er 27 inch monitor
best monitor to use with hp spectre 15
best color option for hp vs15 monitor
best chords for hp laptop and double monitor set up
best monitor for hp spectre x360
best connection to monitor from hp omen
best vesa adapter for hp monitor
best hp 21 inch monitor
what is the best hdmi for my hp monitor
prev next memorial day sale! shop our best deals. hp p244 23.8-inch monitor
best price for hp monitor 019078112534
best hp monitor for video editing
hp – 23f 23″ ips led fhd freesync monitor – natural silver best price
hp omen monitor best graphics card
best monitor for hp elitebook 850 g3
best resolution for hp 24uh led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for doing websites laptop
best cable to connect hp monitor to computer
best color calibration for hp monitor
best resolution for hp 27er monitor
best cords for hp laptop and three monitor setup
best respond time for hp omen monitor
best type of hook-up for the monitor hp 2159m
hp omen 32 monitor best price
what is the best way to mount an hp monitor to a vesa mount
best calibration for hp 27sv monitor for photo editing
best mac color profile for hp 22cwa monitor
best hp computer monitors
best profile for hp monitor graphic design
best external monitor dongle for hp spectre x360
best desktop monitor for hp zbook 14
what cord do i use for best resolution for macbook pro early 2015 to hp external monitor
best gaming monitor hp
what is the best hp monitor
best visual mode for gaming on hp omen monitor
best monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best monitor for hp omen dektop
best way to clean an hp touch screen monitor
best speakers to connect to hp 27 curved monitor
the best hp monitor
best external speaker for hp monitor
what’s the best resolution of hp w2207 monitor
best hp 22 inch monitor
the best hp monitor for dual monitors
best setup for hp 27er game monitor
best hp laptop for under 1000 with 17″ monitor
hp – 31.5″ ips led fhd monitor best price
best hp 20 inch monitor
best price on hp monitor to link with laptop
best monitor for hp elitebook
best monitor for intel core hp laptop
hp pavilion monitor best buyhp pavilion 22cwa 21.5-inch ips led backlit monitor
best hp monitor for windows 10
best monitor for an hp omen 880 0xx
best graphics card for hp 32 monitor
best large gaming monitor hp omen
best pc monitor for hp spectre x360 13″ (8th gen)
best 23 inch hp omen monitor with built in speakers
best 4k color monitor, samsung, hp, asus, or dell
hp spectre 360 best monitor
best small hp monitor for video editing under 200
best way to set up a second monitor on a hp all in one
best connection for hp 2311x monitor
hp 25″ computer monitor freesync best price
best monitor to use with an hp elite thunderbolt 3 dock
best resolution for a hp 2009m monitor
hp – 27f 27″ ips led fhd freesync monitor best price
best monitor for hp elitebook 840
best hp desktop without monitor
best thunderbolt 3 for monitor to hp laptop
best hp monitor 2016
best monitor for the hp-590 desktop
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitors
hp pavilion monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 23.8 inch fhd ips monitor
hp vh240a monitor
hp 27 monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp envy monitors
hp 23 ips led hd monitor
hp 22cwa monitor
hp 4k monitor
hp monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp pavilion monitor
hp 24 inch monitor
hp 27 curved monitor
hp 32 inch monitor
hp envy monitors
hp envy monitor
hp portable monitors
hp monitor 27 inch
monitores hp pavilion
hp ips monitor
hp omen 32 monitor
monitor hp
hp 24 monitor
hp 32 monitor
hp ips led monitor
hp monitor amazon
hp 24″ monitor
monitores hp 22
amazon hp monitor
hp monitors 27
27 inch hp monitor
hp monitors for sale
hp pavillion monitor
hp computer monitors
hp envy 32 monitor
hp monitors 24 inch
hp elite monitor
hp monitors 27 inch
hp monitor 27
hp curved monitor 27
hp envy 4k monitor
hp 30 inch monitor
best hp monitor
hp 19 monitor
hp 27 inch curved monitor
hp 1080p monitor
hp pc monitor
monitores hp ips
monitores lcd hp
hp monitor with built in speakers
hp monitor 24 inches
cheap hp monitors
hp monitor 24 inch
hp 21 monitor
hp pavilion monitors
hp flat screen monitor
hp lcd monitor
hp 30 monitor
hp envy monitor 32
24 hp monitors
hp monitors with speakers
24 hp monitor
hp omen 24 inch monitor
32 inch hp monitor
hp omen 32″ qhd monitor
hp monitor review
hp elite display monitor
hp 32 omen monitor
hp 27er monitor review
hp monitor screen
hp monitor 4k
omen by hp 32-inch qhd gaming monitor
hp 24 in monitor
hp 24 monitors
hp monitors amazon
19 hp monitor
hp omen 32 monitor reviews
hp monitor 22 inch
hp monitors 19 inch
hp monitor with webcam
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor review
hp pavilion 32 monitor review
hp flat screen computer monitors
20 inch hp monitor
touch screen monitors hp
20 hp monitor
hp envy 27 monitor review
monitores hp touch screen
hp monitor 1920×1080
hp monitor 25 inch
hp envy monitor 24
hp monitors 25 inch
hp gaming monitors
hp curved 27 monitor
white hp monitor
hp 1440p monitor
hp display monitor
hp monitor hdmi
hp 28 inch monitor
22 inch hp monitor
hp lcd monitors
hp computer monitors 27 inch
hp laptop broken screen external monitor
hp 27 ips led monitor review
hp 27 inch monitor review
27″ hp monitor
hp 26 inch monitor
hp monitors reviews
hp professional monitors
hp frameless monitor
4k hp monitor
hp ips monitors
hp monitors 20 inch
hp monitor with camera
best hp gaming monitor
hp pavilion monitor review
hp flat panel monitor
27 inch monitor hp
monitor hp 27
hp 24 inch led monitor
hp monitor 20
24 inch hp monitor
hp 4k monitors
hp envy 27 inch monitor
hp flat screen computer monitor
portable monitor hp
hp bang and olufsen monitor
hp 23 ips led hd monitor review
hp computer monitors for sale
hp 19″ monitor
hp envy 32 inch monitor
hp 29 inch monitor
hp vertical monitor
hp 32 inch computer monitor
hp ips 27 monitor review
hp wireless monitor
computer hp monitor
hp 27-inch fhd curved monitor
hp computer monitors with built in speakers
hp envy usb c monitor
hp monitor setup
hp 32 monitor review
computer monitor hp
hp 28 monitor
hp 27 monitor review
hp computer monitor price
hp pro monitor
monitor hp 24
hp monitor 24 inch price
monitor hp 24 inch
hp slim monitor
hp high resolution monitor
hp thin monitor
hp portable monitor for laptop
hp flat monitor
hp 4k curved monitor
hp 24m full hd monitor
hp 32 curved monitor
hp monitor led
hp multiple monitors
hp 24 inch computer monitor
buy hp monitor
27 inch hp led monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp computer monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor
hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor
hp 27 inch monitor
hp gaming monitor

hp computer monitor

computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises the display devicecircuitry, casing, and power supply. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT). Monitors are connected to the computer via VGADigital Visual Interface (DVI), HDMIDisplayPortThunderboltlow-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) or other proprietary connectors and signals.

hp computer monitor

Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television sets were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality. The common aspect ratio of televisions, and computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9.

hp computer monitor

Modern computer monitors are easily interchangeable with conventional television sets. However, as computer monitors do not necessarily include integrated speakers, it may not be possible to use a computer monitor without external components.[1]

hp computer monitor

Early electronic computers were fitted with a panel of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer.

hp computer monitors

This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the ‘monitor’. As early monitors were only capable of displaying a very limited amount of information and were very transient, they were rarely considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program’s operation.[citation needed]

hp computer monitor

As technology developed engineers realized that the output of a CRT display was more flexible than a panel of light bulbs and eventually, by giving control of what was displayed in the program itself, the monitor itself became a powerful output device in its own right.[citation needed]

hp computer monitor

Computer monitors were formerly known as visual display units (VDU), but this term had mostly fallen out of use by the 1990s.

hp computer monitor

The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal (VDT) using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a single large chassis. The display was monochrome and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern flat-panel monitor, necessitating the use of relatively large text and severely limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for the specialized military, industrial and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use.

hp computer monitor

Some of the earliest home computers (such as the TRS-80 and Commodore PET) were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was already a standard feature of the pioneering Apple II, introduced in 1977, and the specialty of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800, introduced in 1979. Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality. Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350.[2]

hp computer monitor

By the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could clearly display 1024 x 768 pixels were widely available and increasingly affordable. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions gradually increased and prices continued to fall. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium partly because it was cheaper to produce and offered to view angles close to 180 degrees.[3] CRTs still offer some image quality advantages[clarification needed] over LCDs but improvements to the latter have made them much less obvious. The dynamic range of early LCD panels was very poor, and although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.

hp computer monitor

There are multiple technologies that have been used to implement liquid crystal displays (LCD). Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT. Commonly, the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: (active or passive) monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color (TFT).

hp computer monitors

As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines.

hp computer monitor

TFT-LCD is a variant of LCD which is now the dominant technology used for computer monitors.[4]

hp computer monitor

The first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, and by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo L66 in the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, and the Apple Cinema Display in 1999.

hp computer monitors

In 2003, TFT-LCDs outsold CRTs for the first time, becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.[3] The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LCDs consume less power, take up much less space, and are considerably lighter. The now common active matrix TFT-LCD technology also has less flickering than CRTs, which reduces eye strain.[5] On the other hand, CRT monitors have superior contrast, have a superior response time, are able to use multiple screen resolutions natively, and there is no discernible flicker if the refresh rate[6] is set to a sufficiently high value. LCD monitors have now very high temporal accuracy and can be used for vision research.[7]

hp computer monitor

High dynamic range (HDR)[6] has been implemented into high-end LCD monitors to improve color accuracy. Since around the late 2000s, widescreen LCD monitors have become popular, in part due to television seriesmotion pictures and video games transitioning to high-definition (HD), which makes standard-width monitors unable to display them correctly as they either stretch or crop HD content.

hp computer monitors

These types of monitors may also display it in the proper width, however they usually fill the extra space at the top and bottom of the image with black bars. Other advantages of widescreen monitors over standard-width monitors is that they make work more productive by displaying more of a user’s documents and images, and allow displaying toolbars with documents. They also have a larger viewing area, with a typical widescreen monitor having a 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to the 4:3 aspect ratio of a typical standard-width monitor.

hp computer monitor

The performance of a monitor is measured by the following parameters:

  • Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m2 also called a Nit).
  • Color depth is measured in bits per primary color or bits for all colors.
  • Gamut is measured as coordinates in the CIE 1931 color space. The names sRGB or AdobeRGB are shorthand notations.
  • Aspect ratio is the ratio of the horizontal length to the vertical length. Monitors usually have the aspect ratio 4:35:416:10 or 16:9.
  • Viewable image size is usually measured diagonally, but the actual widths and heights are more informative since they are not affected by the aspect ratio in the same way. For CRTs, the viewable size is typically 1 in (25 mm) smaller than the tube itself.
  • Display resolution is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. For a given display size, maximum resolution is limited by dot pitch.
  • Dot pitch is the distance between sub-pixels of the same color in millimeters. In general, the smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the picture will appear.
  • Refresh rate is the number of times in a second that a display is illuminated. Maximum refresh rate is limited by response time.
  • Response time is the time a pixel in a monitor takes to go from active (white) to inactive (black) and back to active (white) again, measured in milliseconds. Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.
  • Contrast ratio is the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the monitor is capable of producing.
  • Power consumption is measured in watts.
  • Delta-E: Color accuracy is measured in delta-E; the lower the delta-E, the more accurate the color representation. A delta-E of below 1 is imperceptible to the human eye. Delta-Es of 2 to 4 are considered good and require a sensitive eye to spot the difference.
  • Viewing angle is the maximum angle at which images on the monitor can be viewed, without excessive degradation to the image. It is measured in degrees horizontally and vertically.
  • On two-dimensional display devices such as computer monitors the display size or view able image size is the actual amount of screen space that is available to display a picturevideo or working space, without obstruction from the case or other aspects of the unit’s design. The main measurements for display devices are: width, height, total area and the diagonal.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

The size of a display is usually by monitor manufacturers given by the diagonal, i.e. the distance between two opposite screen corners. This method of measurement is inherited from the method used for the first generation of CRT television, when picture tubes with circular faces were in common use. Being circular, it was the external diameter of the glass envelope that described their size. Since these circular tubes were used to display rectangular images, the diagonal measurement of the rectangular image was smaller than the diameter of the tube’s face (due to the thickness of the glass). This method continued even when cathode ray tubes were manufactured as rounded rectangles; it had the advantage of being a single number specifying the size, and was not confusing when the aspect ratio was universally 4:3.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

With the introduction of flat panel technology, the diagonal measurement became the actual diagonal of the visible display. This meant that an eighteen-inch LCD had a larger visible area than an eighteen-inch cathode ray tube.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

The estimation of the monitor size by the distance between opposite corners does not take into account the display aspect ratio, so that for example a 16:9 21-inch (53 cm) widescreen display has less area, than a 21-inch (53 cm) 4:3 screen. The 4:3 screen has dimensions of 16.8 in × 12.6 in (43 cm × 32 cm) and area 211 sq in (1,360 cm2), while the widescreen is 18.3 in × 10.3 in (46 cm × 26 cm), 188 sq in (1,210 cm2).

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises the display devicecircuitry, casing, and power supply. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube (CRT). Monitors are connected to the computer via VGADigital Visual Interface (DVI), HDMIDisplayPortThunderboltlow-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) or other proprietary connectors and signals.

hp 27 inch monitor

Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television sets were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality. The common aspect ratio of televisions, and computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9.

hp 27 inch monitor

Modern computer monitors are easily interchangeable with conventional television sets. However, as computer monitors do not necessarily include integrated speakers, it may not be possible to use a computer monitor without external components.[1]

hp 27 inch monitor

Early electronic computers were fitted with a panel of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer. This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the ‘monitor’. As early monitors were only capable of displaying a very limited amount of information and were very transient, they were rarely considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program’s operation.[citation needed]

hp 27 inch monitor

As technology developed engineers realized that the output of a CRT display was more flexible than a panel of light bulbs and eventually, by giving control of what was displayed in the program itself, the monitor itself became a powerful output device in its own right.[citation needed]

hp 27 inch monitor

Computer monitors were formerly known as visual display units (VDU), but this term had mostly fallen out of use by the 1990s.

hp gaming monitor

The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal (VDT) using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a single large chassis. The display was monochrome and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern flat-panel monitor, necessitating the use of relatively large text and severely limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for the specialized military, industrial and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use.

hp gaming monitor

Some of the earliest home computers (such as the TRS-80 and Commodore PET) were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was already a standard feature of the pioneering Apple II, introduced in 1977, and the specialty of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800, introduced in 1979.

hp computer monitors

Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality. Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350.[2]

hp gaming monitor

By the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could clearly display 1024 x 768 pixels were widely available and increasingly affordable. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions gradually increased and prices continued to fall. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium partly because it was cheaper to produce and offered to view angles close to 180 degrees.[3] CRTs still offer some image quality advantages[clarification needed] over LCDs but improvements to the latter have made them much less obvious. The dynamic range of early LCD panels was very poor, and although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.

Best HP Monitor 2020

Best HP Monitor 2020

liquid crystal display (LCD) computer monitor

Best HP Monitor 2020

Best HP Monitor 2020

hp gaming monitor

cathode-ray tube (CRT) computer monitor

computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor usually comprises the visual displaycircuitry, casing, and power supply. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film.

hp gaming monitor

There are multiple technologies that have been used to implement liquid crystal displays (LCD). Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT. Commonly, the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: (active or passive) monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color (TFT). As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines.

hp gaming monitor

TFT-LCD is a variant of LCD which is now the dominant technology used for computer monitors.[4]

hp computer monitor

The first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, and by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo L66 in the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, and the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003, TFT-LCDs outsold CRTs for the first time, becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.[3] The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LCDs consume less power, take up much less space, and are considerably lighter. The now common active matrix TFT-LCD technology also has less flickering than CRTs, which reduces eye strain.[5] On the other hand, CRT monitors have superior contrast, have a superior response time, are able to use multiple screen resolutions natively, and there is no discernible flicker if the refresh rate[6] is set to a sufficiently high value. LCD monitors have now very high temporal accuracy and can be used for vision research.[7]

hp computer monitor

High dynamic range (HDR)[6] has been implemented into high-end LCD monitors to improve color accuracy. Since around the late 2000s, widescreen LCD monitors have become popular, in part due to television seriesmotion pictures and video games transitioning to high-definition (HD), which makes standard-width monitors unable to display them correctly as they either stretch or crop HD content. These types of monitors may also display it in the proper width, however they usually fill the extra space at the top and bottom of the image with black bars. Other advantages of widescreen monitors over standard-width monitors is that they make work more productive by displaying more of a user’s documents and images, and allow displaying toolbars with documents. They also have a larger viewing area, with a typical widescreen monitor having a 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to the 4:3 aspect ratio of a typical standard-width monitor.

hp computer monitor

Early electronic computers were fitted with a panel of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer. This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the ‘monitor’. As early monitors were only capable of displaying a very limited amount of information and were very transient, they were rarely considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program’s operation.[citation needed]

As technology developed engineers realized that the output of a CRT display was more flexible than a panel of light bulbs and eventually, by giving control of what was displayed in the program itself, the monitor itself became a powerful output device in its own right.[citation needed]

Computer monitors were formerly known as visual display units (VDU), but this term had mostly fallen out of use by the 1990s.

hp computer monitor

Multiple technologies have been used for computer monitors. Until the 21st century most used cathode ray tubes but they have largely been superseded by LCD monitors.

hp computer monitor

The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal (VDT) using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a single large chassis. The display was monochrome and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern flat-panel monitor, necessitating the use of relatively large text and severely limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for the specialized military, industrial and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use.

hp computer monitor

Some of the earliest home computers (such as the TRS-80 and Commodore PET) were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was already a standard feature of the pioneering Apple II, introduced in 1977, and the specialty of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800, introduced in 1979. Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality. Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350.[2]

hp computer monitor

By the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could clearly display 1024 x 768 pixels were widely available and increasingly affordable. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions gradually increased and prices continued to fall. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium partly because it was cheaper to produce and offered to view angles close to 180 degrees.[3] CRTs still offer some image quality advantages[clarification needed] over LCDs but improvements to the latter have made them much less obvious. The dynamic range of early LCD panels was very poor, and although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.

hp computer monitor

hp computer monitor

There are multiple technologies that have been used to implement liquid crystal displays (LCD). Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT. Commonly, the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: (active or passive) monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color (TFT). As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines.

hp computer monitor

TFT-LCD is a variant of LCD which is now the dominant technology used for computer monitors.[4]

hp computer monitor

The first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, and by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo L66 in the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, and the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003, TFT-LCDs outsold CRTs for the first time, becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.[3] The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LCDs consume less power, take up much less space, and are considerably lighter. The now common active matrix TFT-LCD technology also has less flickering than CRTs, which reduces eye strain.[5] On the other hand, CRT monitors have superior contrast, have a superior response time, are able to use multiple screen resolutions natively, and there is no discernible flicker if the refresh rate[6] is set to a sufficiently high value. LCD monitors have now very high temporal accuracy and can be used for vision research.[7]

hp computer monitor

High dynamic range (HDR)[6] has been implemented into high-end LCD monitors to improve color accuracy. Since around the late 2000s, widescreen LCD monitors have become popular, in part due to television seriesmotion pictures and video games transitioning to high-definition (HD), which makes standard-width monitors unable to display them correctly as they either stretch or crop HD content. These types of monitors may also display it in the proper width, however they usually fill the extra space at the top and bottom of the image with black bars. Other advantages of widescreen monitors over standard-width monitors is that they make work more productive by displaying more of a user’s documents and images, and allow displaying toolbars with documents. They also have a larger viewing area, with a typical widescreen monitor having a 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to the 4:3 aspect ratio of a typical standard-width monitor.

hp computer monitor

computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A “complete” computer including the hardware, the operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment required and used for “full” operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.

hp computer monitor

Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.

hp computer monitor

Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The first semiconductor transistors in the late 1940s were followed by the silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip technologies in the late 1950s, leading to the microprocessor and the microcomputer revolution in the 1970s. The speed, power and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then, with MOS transistor counts increasing at a rapid pace (as predicted by Moore’s law), leading to the Digital Revolution during the late 20th to early 21st centuries.

hp computer monitor

Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) in the form of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) microprocessor, along with some type of computer memory, typically MOS semiconductor memory chips. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored informationPeripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.

hp computer monitors

Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricityelectronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electrical power generation, distribution and use.

hp computer monitors

Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields, including computer engineeringpower engineeringtelecommunicationsradio-frequency engineeringsignal processinginstrumentation, and electronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics, electromagnetics and waves, microwave engineeringnanotechnologyelectrochemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, and electrical materials science.[a]

Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body or an international standards organization. These include the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (formerly the IEE).

Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from circuit theory to the management skills of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.

History[edit]

Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th centuryWilliam Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, and was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity. He is credited with establishing the term “electricity”.[2] He also designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects. In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Wilcke invented a device later named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery.

19th century[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology

In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor,[3] of Michael Faraday (the discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831), and of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism.[4]

In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin probably the world’s first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet. This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph that moved gold leaf through electrical conduction.

In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803–1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was very innovative though it was greatly influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water.[5] Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the later 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.[6][7] Over 50 years later, he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers (soon to be renamed the Institution of Electrical Engineers) where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort.[8] By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, and, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy.

Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure. They led to the international standardization of the units voltamperecoulombohmfarad, and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893.[9] The publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, and in many countries, the definitions were immediately recognized in relevant legislation.[10]

During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature. The Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world’s first department of electrical engineering in 1882 and introduced the first degree course in electrical engineering in 1883.[11] The first electrical engineering degree program in the United States was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the physics department under Professor Charles Cross, [12] though it was Cornell University to produce the world’s first electrical engineering graduates in 1885.[13] The first course in electrical engineering was taught in 1883 in Cornell’s Sibley College of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanic Arts.[14] It was not until about 1885 that Cornell President Andrew Dickson White established the first Department of Electrical Engineering in the United States.[15] In the same year, University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in Great Britain.[16] Professor Mendell P. Weinbach at University of Missouri soon followed suit by establishing the electrical engineering department in 1886.[17] Afterwards, universities and institutes of technology gradually started to offer electrical engineering programs to their students all over the world.

During these decades use of electrical engineering increased dramatically. In 1882, Thomas Edison switched on the world’s first large-scale electric power network that provided 110 volts — direct current (DC) — to 59 customers on Manhattan Island in New York City. In 1884, Sir Charles Parsons invented the steam turbine allowing for more efficient electric power generation. Alternating current, with its ability to transmit power more efficiently over long distances via the use of transformers, developed rapidly in the 1880s and 1890s with transformer designs by Károly ZipernowskyOttó Bláthy and Miksa Déri (later called ZBD transformers), Lucien GaulardJohn Dixon Gibbs and William Stanley, Jr.. Practical AC motor designs including induction motors were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla and further developed into a practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown.[18] Charles Steinmetz and Oliver Heaviside contributed to the theoretical basis of alternating current engineering.[19][20] The spread in the use of AC set off in the United States what has been called the war of the currents between a George Westinghouse backed AC system and a Thomas Edison backed DC power system, with AC being adopted as the overall standard.[21]

Early 20th century[edit]

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

Guglielmo Marconi, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission.

During the development of radio, many scientists and inventors contributed to radio technology and electronics. The mathematical work of James Clerk Maxwell during the 1850s had shown the relationship of different forms of electromagnetic radiation including the possibility of invisible airborne waves (later called “radio waves”). In his classic physics experiments of 1888, Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell’s theory by transmitting radio waves with a spark-gap transmitter, and detected them by using simple electrical devices. Other physicists experimented with these new waves and in the process developed devices for transmitting and detecting them. In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi began work on a way to adapt the known methods of transmitting and detecting these “Hertzian waves” into a purpose built commercial wireless telegraphic system. Early on, he sent wireless signals over a distance of one and a half miles. In December 1901, he sent wireless waves that were not affected by the curvature of the Earth. Marconi later transmitted the wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and St. John’s, Newfoundland, a distance of 2,100 miles (3,400 km).[22]

Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60 GHz in his experiments.[23] He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves,[24] when he patented the radio crystal detector in 1901.[25][26]

In 1897, Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope, a crucial enabling technology for electronic television.[27] John Fleming invented the first radio tube, the diode, in 1904. Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode.[28]

In 1920, Albert Hull developed the magnetron which would eventually lead to the development of the microwave oven in 1946 by Percy Spencer.[29][30] In 1934, the British military began to make strides toward radar (which also uses the magnetron) under the direction of Dr Wimperis, culminating in the operation of the first radar station at Bawdsey in August 1936.[31]

In 1941, Konrad Zuse presented the Z3, the world’s first fully functional and programmable computer using electromechanical parts. In 1943, Tommy Flowers designed and built the Colossus, the world’s first fully functional, electronic, digital and programmable computer.[32][33] In 1946, the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) of John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly followed, beginning the computing era. The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives.[34]

Solid-state electronics[edit]

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

A replica of the first working transistor, a point-contact transistor.

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), the basic building of modern electronics.

The first working transistor was a point-contact transistor invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain while working under William Shockley at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in 1947.[35] They then invented the bipolar junction transistor in 1948.[36] While early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis,[37] they opened the door for more compact devices.[38]

The surface passivation process, which electrically stabilized silicon surfaces via thermal oxidation, was developed by Mohamed M. Atalla at BTL in 1957. This led to the development of the monolithic integrated circuit chip.[39][40][41] The first integrated circuits were the hybrid integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in 1958 and the monolithic integrated circuit chip invented by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959.[42]

The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at BTL in 1959.[43][44][45] It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.[37] It revolutionized the electronics industry,[46][47] becoming the most widely used electronic device in the world.[44][48][49] The MOSFET is the basic element in most modern electronic equipment,[50][51] and has been central to the electronics revolution,[52] the microelectronics revolution,[53] and the Digital Revolution.[45][54][55][56] The MOSFET has thus been credited as the birth of modern electronics,[57][58] and possibly the most important invention in electronics.[59]

The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips.[44] Atalla first proposed the concept of the MOS integrated circuit (MOS IC) chip in 1960, followed by Kahng in 1961.[37][60] The earliest experimental MOS IC chip to be fabricated was built by Fred Heiman and Steven Hofstein at RCA Laboratories in 1962.[61] MOS technology enabled Moore’s law, the doubling of transistors on an IC chip every two years, predicted by Gordon Moore in 1965.[62] Silicon-gate MOS technology was developed by Federico Faggin at Fairchild in 1968.[63] Since then, the MOSFET has been the basic building block of modern electronics.[45][64][50] The mass-production of silicon MOSFETs and MOS integrated circuit chips, along with continuous MOSFET scaling miniaturization at an exponential pace (as predicted by Moore’s law), has since led to revolutionary changes in technology, economy, culture and thinking.[65]

The Apollo program which culminated in landing astronauts on the Moon with Apollo 11 in 1969 was enabled by NASA‘s adoption of advances in semiconductor electronic technology, including MOSFETs in the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP)[66][67] and silicon integrated circuit chips in the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC).[68]

The development of MOS integrated circuit technology in the 1960s led to the invention of the microprocessor in the early 1970s.[69][51] The first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel 4004, released in 1971.[69] It began with the “Busicom Project”[70] as Masatoshi Shima‘s three-chip CPU design in 1968,[71][70] before Sharp‘s Tadashi Sasaki conceived of a single-chip CPU design, which he discussed with Busicom and Intel in 1968.[72] The Intel 4004 was then designed and realized by Federico Faggin at Intel with his silicon-gate MOS technology,[69] along with Intel’s Marcian Hoff and Stanley Mazor and Busicom’s Masatoshi Shima.[70] The microprocessor led to the development of microcomputers and personal computers, and the microcomputer revolution.

Subfields[edit]

Electrical engineering has many subdisciplines, the most common of which are listed below. Although there are electrical engineers who focus exclusively on one of these subdisciplines, many deal with a combination of them. Sometimes certain fields, such as electronic engineering and computer engineering, are considered separate disciplines in their own right.

Power[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

Power engineering deals with the generationtransmission, and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices.[73] These include transformerselectric generatorselectric motors, high voltage engineering, and power electronics. In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy. Users purchase electrical energy from the grid, avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it.[74] Such systems are called on-grid power systems and may supply the grid with additional power, draw power from the grid, or do both. Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid, called off-grid power systems, which in some cases are preferable to on-grid systems. The future includes Satellite controlled power systems, with feedback in real time to prevent power surges and prevent blackouts.

Control[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

Control systems play a critical role in spaceflight.

Control engineering focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner.[75] To implement such controllers, electrical engineers may use electronic circuitsdigital signal processorsmicrocontrollers, and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners to the cruise control present in many modern automobiles.[76] It also plays an important role in industrial automation.

Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in an automobile with cruise control the vehicle’s speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the motor’s power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.[77]

Electronics[edit]

Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistorscapacitorsinductorsdiodes, and transistors to achieve a particular functionality.[74] The tuned circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit. Another example to research is a pneumatic signal conditioner.

Prior to the Second World War, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radarcommercial radio, and early television.[74] Later, in post-war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field grew to include modern television, audio systems, computers, and microprocessors. In the mid-to-late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering.

Before the invention of the integrated circuit in 1959,[78] electronic circuits were constructed from discrete components that could be manipulated by humans. These discrete circuits consumed much space and power and were limited in speed, although they are still common in some applications. By contrast, integrated circuits packed a large number—often millions—of tiny electrical components, mainly transistors,[79] into a small chip around the size of a coin. This allowed for the powerful computers and other electronic devices we see today.

Microelectronics and nanoelectronics[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

Microelectronics engineering deals with the design and microfabrication of very small electronic circuit components for use in an integrated circuit or sometimes for use on their own as a general electronic component.[80] The most common microelectronic components are semiconductor transistors, although all main electronic components (resistorscapacitors etc.) can be created at a microscopic level.

Nanoelectronics is the further scaling of devices down to nanometer levels. Modern devices are already in the nanometer regime, with below 100 nm processing having been standard since around 2002.[81]

Microelectronic components are created by chemically fabricating wafers of semiconductors such as silicon (at higher frequencies, compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide and indium phosphide) to obtain the desired transport of electronic charge and control of current. The field of microelectronics involves a significant amount of chemistry and material science and requires the electronic engineer working in the field to have a very good working knowledge of the effects of quantum mechanics.[82]

Signal processing[edit]

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

Bayer filter on a CCD requires signal processing to get a red, green, and blue value at each pixel.

Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals.[83] Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information. For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compressionerror detection and error correction of digitally sampled signals.[84]

Signal Processing is a very mathematically oriented and intensive area forming the core of digital signal processing and it is rapidly expanding with new applications in every field of electrical engineering such as communications, control, radar, audio engineeringbroadcast engineering, power electronics, and biomedical engineering as many already existing analog systems are replaced with their digital counterparts. Analog signal processing is still important in the design of many control systems.

DSP processor ICs are found in many types of modern electronic devices, such as digital television sets,[85] radios, Hi-Fi audio equipment, mobile phones, multimedia players, camcorders and digital cameras, automobile control systems, noise cancelling headphones, digital spectrum analyzers, missile guidance systems, radar systems, and telematics systems. In such products, DSP may be responsible for noise reductionspeech recognition or synthesisencoding or decoding digital media, wirelessly transmitting or receiving data, triangulating position using GPS, and other kinds of image processingvideo processingaudio processing, and speech processing.[86]

Telecommunications[edit]

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

Satellite dishes are a crucial component in the analysis of satellite information.

Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a communication channel such as a coax cableoptical fiber or free space.[87] Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier signal to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission; this is known as modulation. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation.[88] The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer.

Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength.[89][90] Typically, if the power of the transmitted signal is insufficient once the signal arrives at the receiver’s antenna(s), the information contained in the signal will be corrupted by noise.

Instrumentation[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

Flight instruments provide pilots with the tools to control aircraft analytically.

Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressureflow, and temperature.[91] The design of such instruments requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory. For example, flight instruments measure variables such as wind speed and altitude to enable pilots the control of aircraft analytically. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.[92]

Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace’s temperature remains constant.[93] For this reason, instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control.

Computers[edit]

 

Supercomputers are used in fields as diverse as computational biology and geographic information systems.

Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware, the design of PDAs, tablets, and supercomputers, or the use of computers to control an industrial plant.[94] Computer engineers may also work on a system’s software. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering, which is usually considered a separate discipline.[95] Desktop computers represent a tiny fraction of the devices a computer engineer might work on, as computer-like architectures are now found in a range of devices including video game consoles and DVD players.

Related disciplines[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

The Bird VIP Infant ventilator

Mechatronics is an engineering discipline which deals with the convergence of electrical and mechanical systems. Such combined systems are known as electromechanical systems and have widespread adoption. Examples include automated manufacturing systems,[96] heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems,[97] and various subsystems of aircraft and automobiles[98] Electronic systems design is the subject within electrical engineering that deals with the multi-disciplinary design issues of complex electrical and mechanical systems.[99]

The term mechatronics is typically used to refer to macroscopic systems but futurists have predicted the emergence of very small electromechanical devices. Already, such small devices, known as Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), are used in automobiles to tell airbags when to deploy,[100] in digital projectors to create sharper images, and in inkjet printers to create nozzles for high definition printing. In the future it is hoped the devices will help build tiny implantable medical devices and improve optical communication.[101]

Biomedical engineering is another related discipline, concerned with the design of medical equipment. This includes fixed equipment such as ventilatorsMRI scanners,[102] and electrocardiograph monitors as well as mobile equipment such as cochlear implantsartificial pacemakers, and artificial hearts.

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.[1]

It uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification, which distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering which uses passive effects such as resistancecapacitance and inductance to control current flow. Electronics has had a major effect on the development of modern society. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the subsequent invention of the vacuum tube which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.[2] This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950, this field was called “radio technology” because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmittersreceivers, and vacuum tubes.

The term “solid-state electronics” emerged after the first working transistor was invented by William ShockleyWalter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen at Bell Labs in 1947. The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was later invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. The MOSFET was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses, revolutionizing the electronics industry, and playing a central role in the microelectronics revolution and Digital Revolution. The MOSFET has since become the basic element in most modern electronic equipment, and is the most widely used electronic device in the world.

Electronics is widely used in information processingtelecommunication, and signal processing. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system; examples are computers or control systems. An electronic system may be a component of another engineered system or a standalone device. As of 2019 most electronic devices[3] use semiconductor components to perform electron control. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistorsdiodesintegrated circuitsoptoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible.

The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics.

Electronic devices and components[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

One of the earliest Audion radio receivers, constructed by De Forest in 1914.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

Electronics Technician performing a voltage check on a power circuit card in the air navigation equipment room aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72).

An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifierradio receiver, or oscillator). Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Some common electronic components are capacitorsinductorsresistorsdiodestransistors, etc. Components are often categorized as active (e.g. transistors and thyristors) or passive (e.g. resistors, diodes, inductors and capacitors).[4]

History of electronic components[edit]

Vacuum tubes (Thermionic valves) were among the earliest electronic components.[5] They were almost solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century.[6][7] They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, television, phonographs, radar, long-distance telephony and much more. They played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s.[8] Since that time, solid-state devices have all but completely taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifierscathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.

The first working point-contact transistor was invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947.[9] In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.[10][11] The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.[12]

The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.[13][14][15][16] The MOSFET was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.[12] Its advantages include high scalability,[17] affordability,[18] low power consumption, and high density.[19] It revolutionized the electronics industry,[20][21] becoming the most widely used electronic device in the world.[15][22] The MOSFET is the basic element in most modern electronic equipment,[23][24] and has been central to the electronics revolution,[25] the microelectronics revolution,[26] and the Digital Revolution.[16][27][28][29] The MOSFET has thus been credited as the birth of modern electronics,[30][31] and possibly the most important invention in electronics.[32]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: analog and digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types.

Analog circuits[edit]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis

Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits.

The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a ‘circuit’ can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.

Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators.

One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is usually called “mixed signal” rather than analog or digital.

Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation. An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output. In fact, many digital circuits are actually implemented as variations of analog circuits similar to this example – after all, all aspects of the real physical world are essentially analog, so digital effects are only realized by constraining analog behavior.

Digital circuits[edit]

Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra, and are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms “digital circuit”, “digital system” and “logic” are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. Most digital circuits use a binary system with two voltage levels labeled “0” and “1”. Often logic “0” will be a lower voltage and referred to as “Low” while logic “1” is referred to as “High”. However, some systems use the reverse definition (“0” is “High”) or are current based. Quite often the logic designer may reverse these definitions from one circuit to the next as he sees fit to facilitate his design. The definition of the levels as “0” or “1” is arbitrary.

Ternary (with three states) logic has been studied, and some prototype computers made.

Computers, electronic clocks, and programmable logic controllers (used to control industrial processes) are constructed of digital circuits. Digital signal processors are another example.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

Heat generated by electronic circuitry must be dissipated to prevent immediate failure and improve long term reliability. Heat dissipation is mostly achieved by passive conduction/convection. Means to achieve greater dissipation include heat sinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as water cooling. These techniques use convectionconduction, and radiation of heat energy.

Noise[edit]

Electronic noise is defined[33] as unwanted disturbances superposed on a useful signal that tend to obscure its information content. Noise is not the same as signal distortion caused by a circuit. Noise is associated with all electronic circuits. Noise may be electromagnetically or thermally generated, which can be decreased by lowering the operating temperature of the circuit. Other types of noise, such as shot noise cannot be removed as they are due to limitations in physical properties.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. To become proficient in electronics it is also necessary to become proficient in the mathematics of circuit analysis.

Circuit analysis is the study of methods of solving generally linear systems for unknown variables such as the voltage at a certain node or the current through a certain branch of a network. A common analytical tool for this is the SPICE circuit simulator.

Also important to electronics is the study and understanding of electromagnetic field theory.

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

Due to the complex nature of electronics theory, laboratory experimentation is an important part of the development of electronic devices. These experiments are used to test or verify the engineer’s design and detect errors. Historically, electronics labs have consisted of electronics devices and equipment located in a physical space, although in more recent years the trend has been towards electronics lab simulation software, such as CircuitLogixMultisim, and PSpice.

hp gaming monitor

Today’s electronics engineers have the ability to design circuits using premanufactured building blocks such as power suppliessemiconductors (i.e. semiconductor devices, such as transistors), and integrated circuitsElectronic design automation software programs include schematic capture programs and printed circuit board design programs. Popular names in the EDA software world are NI Multisim, Cadence (ORCAD), EAGLE PCB and Schematic, Mentor (PADS PCB and LOGIC Schematic), Altium (Protel), LabCentre Electronics (Proteus), gEDA, KiCad and many others.

hp gaming monitor

Many different methods of connecting components have been used over the years. For instance, early electronics often used point to point wiring with components attached to wooden breadboards to construct circuits. Cordwood construction and wire wrap were other methods used. Most modern day electronics now use printed circuit boards made of materials such as FR4, or the cheaper (and less hard-wearing) Synthetic Resin Bonded Paper (SRBP, also known as Paxoline/Paxolin (trade marks) and FR2) – characterised by its brown colour. Health and environmental concerns associated with electronics assembly have gained increased attention in recent years, especially for products destined to the European Union, with its Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), which went into force in July 2006.

hp gaming monitor

Electronic systems design deals with the multi-disciplinary design issues of complex electronic devices and systems, such as mobile phones and computers. The subject covers a broad spectrum, from the design and development of an electronic system (new product development) to assuring its proper function, service life and disposal.[34] Electronic systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing complex electronic devices to satisfy specified requirements of the user.

hp gaming monitor

Electrical components are generally mounted in the following ways:

hp gaming monitor

The electronics industry consists of various sectors. The central driving force behind the entire electronics industry is the semiconductor industry sector,[35] which has annual sales of over $481 billion as of 2018.[36] The largest industry sector is e-commerce, which generated over $29 trillion in 2017.[37] The most widely manufactured electronic device is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), with an estimated 13 sextillion MOSFETs having been manufactured between 1960 and 2018.[38]

light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons. The color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photons) is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor.[5] White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device.[6]

Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared (IR) light.[7] Infrared LEDs are used in remote-control circuits, such as those used with a wide variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visibleultraviolet (UV), and infrared wavelengths, with high light output.

Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps, replacing small incandescent bulbs, and in seven-segment displays. Recent developments have produced high-output white light LEDs suitable for room and outdoor area lighting. LEDs have led to new displays and sensors, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology.

LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. LEDs are used in applications as diverse as aviation lightingautomotive headlamps, advertising, general lightingtraffic signals, camera flashes, lighted wallpaperhorticultural grow lights, and medical devices.[8]

Unlike a laser, the light emitted from an LED is neither spectrally coherent nor even highly monochromatic. However, its spectrum.

Discoveries and early devices[edit]

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

Green electroluminescence from a point contact on a crystal of SiC recreates Round‘s original experiment from 1907.

Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat’s-whisker detector.[11][12] Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927.[13] His research was distributed in Soviet, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.[14][15]

In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide (ZnS) powder is suspended in an insulator and an alternating electrical field is applied to it. In his publications, Destriau often referred to luminescence as Losev-Light. Destriau worked in the laboratories of Madame Marie Curie, also an early pioneer in the field of luminescence with research on radium.[16][17]

Hungarian Zoltán Bay together with György Szigeti pre-empted LED lighting in Hungary in 1939 by patenting a lighting device based on SiC, with an option on boron carbide, that emitted white, yellowish white, or greenish white depending on impurities present.[18]

Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, and Edward Jamgochian explained these first LEDs in 1951 using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of a battery or a pulse generator and with a comparison to a variant, pure, crystal in 1953.[19][20]

Rubin Braunstein[21] of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.[22] Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide (GaSb), GaAs, indium phosphide (InP), and silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvins.

In 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance. As noted by Kroemer[23] Braunstein “…had set up a simple optical communications link: Music emerging from a record player was used via suitable electronics to modulate the forward current of a GaAs diode. The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away. This signal was fed into an audio amplifier and played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup.” This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications.

hp gaming monitor

hp gaming monitor

 

A 1962 Texas Instruments SNX-100 GaAs LED contained in a TO-18 transistor metal case

In September 1961, while working at Texas Instruments in DallasTexasJames R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered near-infrared (900 nm) light emission from a tunnel diode they had constructed on a GaAs substrate.[7] By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically isolated semiconductor photodetector.[24] On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman filed a patent titled “Semiconductor Radiant Diode” based on their findings, which described a zinc-diffused p–n junction LED with a spaced cathode contact to allow for efficient emission of infrared light under forward bias. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G.E. Labs, RCA Research Labs, IBM Research Labs, Bell Labs, and Lincoln Lab at MIT, the U.S. patent office issued the two inventors the patent for the GaAs infrared light-emitting diode (U.S. Patent US3293513), the first practical LED.[7] Immediately after filing the patent, Texas Instruments (TI) began a project to manufacture infrared diodes. In October 1962, TI announced the first commercial LED product (the SNX-100), which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit an 890 nm light output.[7] In October 1963, TI announced the first commercial hemispherical LED, the SNX-110.[25]

The first visible-spectrum (red) LED was demonstrated by Nick Holonyak, Jr. on October 9, 1962 while he was working for General Electric in Syracuse, New York.[26] Holonyak and Bevacqua reported this LED in the journal Applied Physics Letters on December 1, 1962.[27][28] M. George Craford,[29] a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972.[30] In 1976, T. P. Pearsall designed the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunications by inventing new semiconductor materials specifically adapted to optical fiber transmission wavelengths.[31]

Initial commercial development[edit]

The first commercial visible-wavelength LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent and neon indicator lamps, and in seven-segment displays,[32] first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as calculators, TVs, radios, telephones, as well as watches (see list of signal uses). Until 1968, visible and infrared LEDs were extremely costly, in the order of US$200 per unit, and so had little practical use.[33]

Hewlett-Packard (HP) was engaged in research and development (R&D) on practical LEDs between 1962 and 1968, by a research team under Howard C. Borden, Gerald P. Pighini and Mohamed M. Atalla at HP Associates and HP Labs.[34] During this time, Atalla launched a material science investigation program on gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) and indium arsenide (InAs) devices at HP,[35] and they collaborated with Monsanto Company on developing the first usable LED products.[36] The first usable LED products were HP’s LED display and Monsanto’s LED indicator lamp, both launched in 1968.[36] Monsanto was the first organization to mass-produce visible LEDs, using GaAsP in 1968 to produce red LEDs suitable for indicators.[33] Monsanto had previously offered to supply HP with GaAsP, but HP decided to grow its own GaAsP.[33] In February 1969, Hewlett-Packard introduced the HP Model 5082-7000 Numeric Indicator, the first LED device to use integrated circuit (integrated LED circuit) technology.[34] It was the first intelligent LED display, and was a revolution in digital display technology, replacing the Nixie tube and becoming the basis for later LED displays.[37]

Atalla left HP and joined Fairchild Semiconductor in 1969.[38] He was the vice president and general manager of the Microwave & Optoelectronics division,[39] from its inception in May 1969 up until November 1971.[40] He continued his work on LEDs, proposing they could be used for indicator lights and optical readers in 1971.[41] In the 1970s, commercially successful LED devices at less than five cents each were produced by Fairchild Optoelectronics. These devices employed compound semiconductor chips fabricated with the planar process (developed by Jean Hoerni,[42][43] based on Atalla’s surface passivation method[44][45]). The combination of planar processing for chip fabrication and innovative packaging methods enabled the team at Fairchild led by optoelectronics pioneer Thomas Brandt to achieve the needed cost reductions.[46] LED producers continue to use these methods.[47]

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

hp 23.8-inch fhd ips monitor

 

LED display of a TI-30 scientific calculator (ca. 1978), which uses plastic lenses to increase the visible digit size

The early red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. Readouts in calculators were so small that plastic lenses were built over each digit to make them legible. Later, other colors became widely available and appeared in appliances and equipment.

Early LEDs were packaged in metal cases similar to those of transistors, with a glass window or lens to let the light out. Modern indicator LEDs are packed in transparent molded plastic cases, tubular or rectangular in shape, and often tinted to match the device color. Infrared devices may be dyed, to block visible light. More complex packages have been adapted for efficient heat dissipation in high-power LEDs. Surface-mounted LEDs further reduce the package size. LEDs intended for use with fiber optics cables may be provided with an optical connector.

Blue LED[edit]

The first blue-violet LED using magnesium-doped gallium nitride was made at Stanford University in 1972 by Herb Maruska and Wally Rhines, doctoral students in materials science and engineering.[48][49] At the time Maruska was on leave from RCA Laboratories, where he collaborated with Jacques Pankove on related work. In 1971, the year after Maruska left for Stanford, his RCA colleagues Pankove and Ed Miller demonstrated the first blue electroluminescence from zinc-doped gallium nitride, though the subsequent device Pankove and Miller built, the first actual gallium nitride light-emitting diode, emitted green light.[50][51] In 1974 the U.S. Patent Office awarded Maruska, Rhines and Stanford professor David Stevenson a patent for their work in 1972 (U.S. Patent US3819974 A). Today, magnesium-doping of gallium nitride remains the basis for all commercial blue LEDs and laser diodes. In the early 1970s, these devices were too dim for practical use, and research into gallium nitride devices slowed.

In August 1989, Cree introduced the first commercially available blue LED based on the indirect bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC).[52] SiC LEDs had very low efficiency, no more than about 0.03%, but did emit in the blue portion of the visible light spectrum.[53][54]

In the late 1980s, key breakthroughs in GaN epitaxial growth and p-type doping[55] ushered in the modern era of GaN-based optoelectronic devices. Building upon this foundation, Theodore Moustakas at Boston University patented a method for producing high-brightness blue LEDs using a new two-step process in 1991.[56]

Two years later, in 1993, high-brightness blue LEDs were demonstrated by Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation using a gallium nitride growth process.[57][58][59] In parallel, Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano in Nagoya were working on developing the important GaN deposition on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaN. This new development revolutionized LED lighting, making high-power blue light sources practical, leading to the development of technologies like Blu-ray[citation needed].

Nakamura was awarded the 2006 Millennium Technology Prize for his invention.[60] Nakamura, Hiroshi Amano and Isamu Akasaki were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014 for the invention of the blue LED.[61] In 2015, a US court ruled that three companies had infringed Moustakas’s prior patent, and ordered them to pay licensing fees of not less than US$13 million.[62]

In 1995, Alberto Barbieri at the Cardiff University Laboratory (GB) investigated the efficiency and reliability of high-brightness LEDs and demonstrated a “transparent contact” LED using indium tin oxide (ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs).

In 2001[63] and 2002,[64] processes for growing gallium nitride (GaN) LEDs on silicon were successfully demonstrated. In January 2012, Osram demonstrated high-power InGaN LEDs grown on silicon substrates commercially,[65] and GaN-on-silicon LEDs are in production at Plessey Semiconductors. As of 2017, some manufacturers are using SiC as the substrate for LED production, but sapphire is more common, as it has the most similar properties to that of gallium nitride, reducing the need for patterning the sapphire wafer (patterned wafers are known as epi wafers). Samsung, the University of Cambridge, and Toshiba are performing research into GaN on Si LEDs. Toshiba has stopped research, possibly due to low yields.[66][67][68][69][70][71][72] Some opt towards epitaxy, which is difficult on silicon, while others, like the University of Cambridge, opt towards a multi-layer structure, in order to reduce (crystal) lattice mismatch and different thermal expansion ratios, in order to avoid cracking of the LED chip at high temperatures (e.g. during manufacturing), reduce heat generation and increase luminous efficiency. Epitaxy (or patterned sapphire) can be carried out with nanoimprint lithography.[73][74][75][76][77][78][79] GaN is often deposited using Metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOCVD), and it also utilizes Lift-off.

White LEDs and the illumination breakthrough[edit]

Even though white light can be created using individual red, green and blue LEDs, this results in poor color rendering, since only three narrow bands of wavelengths of light are being emitted. The attainment of high efficiency blue LEDs was quickly followed by the development of the first white LED. In this device a Y
3Al
5O
12
:Ce (known as “YAG” or Ce:YAG phosphor) cerium doped phosphor coating produces yellow light through fluorescence. The combination of that yellow with remaining blue light appears white to the eye. Using different phosphors produces green and red light through fluorescence. The resulting mixture of red, green and blue is perceived as white light, with improved color rendering compared to wavelengths from the blue LED/YAG phosphor combination.

 

Illustration of Haitz’s law, showing improvement in light output per LED over time, with a logarithmic scale on the vertical axis

The first white LEDs were expensive and inefficient. However, the light output of LEDs has increased exponentially. The latest research and development has been propagated by Japanese manufacturers such as Panasonic, and Nichia, and by Korean and Chinese manufacturers such as Samsung, Kingsun, and others. This trend in increased output has been called Haitz’s law after Dr. Roland Haitz.[80]

The first white LEDs were expensive and inefficient. However, the light output of LEDs has increased exponentially. The latest research and development has been propagated by Japanese manufacturers such as Panasonic, and Nichia, and by Korean and Chinese manufacturers such as Samsung, Kingsun, and others. This trend in increased output has been called Haitz’s law after Dr. Roland Haitz.[80]

Light output and efficiency of blue and near-ultraviolet LEDs rose and the cost of reliable devices fell. This led to relatively high-power white-light LEDs for illumination, which are replacing incandescent and fluorescent lighting.[81][82]

Experimental white LEDs have been demonstrated to produce 303 lumens per watt of electricity (lm/w); some can last up to 100,000 hours.[83][84] However, commercially available LEDs have an efficiency of up to 223 lm/w.[85][86][87] Compared to incandescent bulbs, this is a huge increase in electrical efficiency, and even though LEDs are more expensive to purchase, overall cost is significantly cheaper than that of incandescent bulbs.[88]

The LED chip is encapsulated inside a small, plastic, white mold. It can be encapsulated using resin (polyurethane-based), silicone, or epoxy containing (powdered) Cerium doped YAG phosphor. After allowing the solvents to evaporate, the LEDs are often tested, and placed on tapes for SMT placement equipment for use in LED light bulb production. Encapsulation is performed after probing, dicing, die transfer from wafer to package, and wire bonding or flip chip mounting, perhaps using Indium tin oxide, a transparent electrical conductor. In this case, the bond wire(s) are attached to the ITO film that has been deposited in the LEDs. Some “remote phosphor” LED light bulbs use a single plastic cover with YAG phosphor for several blue LEDs, instead of using phosphor coatings on single chip white LEDs.

Aerospace engineering and robotics an example is the most recent electric propulsion and ion propulsion.