Intro to CSS Transitions and Animations 2020

Intro to CSS Transitions and Animations 2020

Welcome to the wtg guide for Intro to CSS Transitions and Animations.

What Are CSS Transitions and Animations?

The evolution of CSS over the years has lead to some really amazing innovations within the language. In the case of transitions and animations, what previously required a program like Adobe Flash or another coding language altogether (such as Javascript) is now possible with nothing but HTML and CSS.

This kind of language maturity, enabled by better browsers and higher web standards (among other things), has been a huge boon to web designers who double as front end developers. They can now do more with less and the whole process of web design/development has become a bit easier.

Nevertheless, CSS transitions and animations are still considered advanced uses of CSS. A spectrum of coding I try to stay away from in most of my articles since I do not consider myself an “advanced developer”–even in language as accessible as HTML or CSS.

That said though, after reading up on W3Schools and elsewhere I think a sufficiently simple introduction to these concepts is within the grasp of not only myself but a good deal of the WTG readership as well.

To begin, I think we need to have a really good idea of what, exactly, CSS transitions and animations are before jumping into examples and code.

CSS Transitions

A CSS transition allows you to change the property values of an element over a given duration that you set. To create a transition you must first identify which CSS property you want to add an effect to and then specify the duration of the effect. If no duration is set, the transition will not occur.

There are four transition properties:

transition-delay – specifies the delay, in seconds (s), you would like to assign your transition effect.

transition-duration – specifies the duration, in seconds (s) or milliseconds (ms), you would like to assign your transition effect.

transition-property – specifies the name of the CSS property your transition effect is meant for.

transition-timing-function – Specifies the speed curve of the transition effect. Meaning, the type of speed variation you want to select for your transition effect. There is no “fast” or “slow” options. Instead there are speed curve options that go from one speed to another. Such as “ease” which tells your effect to start slow, then go fast, then end slowly.

To create a transition you only need to change one of these properties over the duration you choose. However, it is possible to change more than one property at the same time; resulting in more dramatic transitions.

CSS Animations

Where CSS transitions are all about altering element properties as they move from state to state, CSS animations are dependent on keyframes and animation properties.

keyframes – keyframes are used to define the styles an element will have at various times.

animation properties – animation properties are used to assign @keyframes to a specific element and determine how it is animated.

There are eight animation properties:

animation-delay – specifies a delay for the start of an animation.

animation-direction – specifies whether an animation should play in reverse direction or alternate cycles.

animation-duration – specifies how many seconds or milliseconds an animation takes to complete one cycle.

animation-fill-mode – specifies a style for the element when the animation is not playing. Such as when it is finished or when it has a delay.

animation-iteration-count – specifies the number of times an animation should be played.

animation-name – specifies the name of the @keyframes animation.

animation-play-state – specifies whether the animation is running or paused.

animation-timing-function – specifies the speed curve of the animation.

The examples below will show you how these things are used together in various ways. Once you understand the relationships between them you’ll be able to figure out all kinds of interesting ways to use them.

A Quick Note on Vendor Prefixes

In your personal usage of CSS transitions and animations you will most likely need to use vendor prefixes. In some of the code below you will no doubt notice some vendor prefixes. Many of the source examples do not contain vendor prefixes, so if you want to see what the code looks like without them you can check there; I thought it might be helpful to provide a fuller picture.

For the uninitiated, when I say “vendor prefix” I’m referring to a prefix that needs to be added to your CSS based on the range of browsers you want to support your transitions and animations.

A good resource for identifying the necessary prefixes for each browser is You can also check out the respective pages for transitions and animations on W3Schools. Or, if you’d like to avoid the mess of prefixes altogether, you can use a tool like

CSS Transition Examples

The CSS transition examples below are all transitions I’ve found from various sources that show what’s possible with these relatively new CSS capabilities. I’ve chosen to recreate the examples I found using CodePen so you can easily take a peak at the HTML and CSS required for each example while also seeing it in action
1. Linear

Example via.

2. Spin

Example via.

3. Color

Example via.

4. Square to Circle

Example via.

5. Card

Example via.

CSS Animation Examples

Again, the CSS animation examples below are from various sources around the web. Just as above, the CodePen allows you to see the animation and the required code in one place. You can also follow my source links to get more information (in some cases) on each example.
1. Pulse

Example via.

2. Shake

Example via.

3. Bouncing

Example via.

4. Bounce In

Example via.

5. Linear Bar

Example via.

Potential Use Cases for CSS Transitions & Animations

As I mentioned above, CSS transitions and animations are ideal for creating compelling and delightful microinteractions across your website. A lot of great WordPress themes and plugins come with some of these behaviors in place. A good example being the Divi Builder, which allows you to control transitions and animations within its module controls.

You may however wish to take the basics above and apply them other areas of your site in which a theme or plugin author has not given you easy control over. The following ideas might help you get started.

  • An email opt-in form that makes a delightful entrance and exist; such as bouncing in and folding closed to disappear.
  • A form that shakes when the essential information is not and someone attempt to submit it as finished.
  • Buttons that fold open, bounce, shake, or in some other way respond to hovering and clicking.
  • Preview images that turn over to reveal more information.
  • Subtle background graphics that move, creating depth.
  • Beautiful charts that spring into action as they load.
  • Google Doodle style experiments, logos, and more.
  • Games (for the really ambitious).
  • Ads that you can interact with or that subtly change shape to draw attention.
  • Beautiful product displays that rotate and respond to the mouse.
  • Beautiful stat counters.
  • And whatever else your imagination can think up.

Inspiring Showcases of CSS Transitions and Animations

If you need more visual stimulus than a list of ideas, I’ve take the liberty of compiling a small but impressive showcase of inspiring CSS transitions and animations that I hope will show off the potential illustrated in the rather basic examples I created above.

Logos in Pure CSS


Logos in Pure CSS is a great showcase of world famous logos re-created with nothing but CSS. In their current form they use animations and transitions to show how they are made and how they stack up against their traditional counterparts. However, I think it’s important to note that just creating your logo in HTML/CSS opens up a lot of interesting possibilities.

Go to Logos in Pure CSS



CSS A/Z is a showcase of HTML/CSS animated sketches; one for each letter of the alphabet. Great stuff and a lot of ideas for sprucing up seemingly insignificant elements on your website.

Go to CSS A/Z

Double Ring


I think Double Ring is a great example of something you could do with a logo to make it more eye catching and interesting.

Go to Double Ring

Navigation Bar


Navigation Bar is an example of just how dynamic and beautiful something as standard as navigation can become when given some advanced CSS love.

Go to Navigation Bar

In Pieces


In Pieces is a magnificent (and highly complex) use case of CSS animation. It’s an interactive exhibition of the evolution of 30 species of animals. Truly breathtaking and a great indicator of just how powerful a tool CSS can be.

Go to In Pieces

Additional Resources & Tutorials

In your quest to master CSS transitions and animations, there is a good chance that you’ll need or want more detail than I am able to provide in this post. Additionally, someone else’s writing style may be a bette fit for the way you think. That’s why I’ve compiled a short list of other useful resources and tutorials below for you to take advantage of.

In Conclusion

CSS transitions and animations are an extremely useful and versatile set of capabilities. You can do small subtle things or big in-your-face impressive things. But either way, it all starts with mastering the basics and moving on from there.

I hope this post is a welcome change of pace for those who have been requesting more CSS related content. If you have any more thoughts or requests on this post or future posts then please feel free to drop us a line in the comments section below.

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Intro to Cubic Bezier Transitions (CSS)

Intro to Cubic Bezier Transitions (CSS)

One of the most overlooked features of CSS transitions is the ability to specify a cubic-bezier transition.  For most projects the standard: ease, ease-in, ease-out, ease-in-out, and linear will do.

If you want your CSS animations to attain to another level or perhaps create a very specific (custom) effect, you should learn the basics of cubic-bezier (CSS) and the Cubic Bezier Curve.

Cubic Bezier Curve (definition):

Four points P0, P1, P2 and P3 in the plane or in higher-dimensional space define a cubic Bézier curve. The curve starts at P0 going toward P1 and arrives at P3 coming from the direction of P2. Usually, it will not pass through P1 or P2; these points are only there to provide directional information. The distance between P0 and P1 determines “how far” and “how fast” the curve moves towards P1 before turning towards P2.

Writing BPi,Pj,Pk(t) for the quadratic Bézier curve defined by points Pi, Pj, and Pk, the cubic Bézier curve can be defined as a linear combination of two quadratic Bézier curves:

\mathbf{B}(t)=(1-t)\mathbf{B}_{\mathbf P_0,\mathbf P_1,\mathbf P_2}(t) + t \mathbf{B}_{\mathbf P_1,\mathbf P_2,\mathbf P_3}(t) \mbox{ , } 0 \le t \le 1.

The explicit form of the curve is:

\mathbf{B}(t)=(1-t)^3\mathbf{P}_0+3(1-t)^2t\mathbf{P}_1+3(1-t)t^2\mathbf{P}_2+t^3\mathbf{P}_3 \mbox{ , } 0 \le t \le 1.

For some choices of P1 and P2 the curve may intersect itself, or contain a cusp.

Any series of any 4 distinct points can be converted to a cubic Bézier curve that goes through all 4 points in order. Given the starting and ending point of some cubic Bézier curve, and the points along the curve corresponding to t = 1/3 and t = 2/3, the control points for the original Bézier curve can be recovered.

CSS implementation:

Use the property “transition”,  with the value “cubic-bezier(n,n,n,n)”.  Possible values are numeric values from 0 to 1.

Written out (example) syntax:

#example {transition: 600ms cubic-bezier(0.83,0.22,0.8,1.31);}

Demo (hover)

Note the little bounce at the end.  That’s created by the last parameter of 1.31 that extends breifly past the normal numeric value (limit) of 1.  Again, a simple example of creating a unique and fine tuned animation. If you would like to get your hands a little dirty and experiment on your own, I would recommend heading over to

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How to Create The Apple Watch Breathe App Animation with CSS

How to Create The Apple Watch Breathe App Animation with CSS

The Apple Watch comes with a stock app called Breathe that reminds you to… breathe. There’s actually more to it than that, it’s a self wellness app of sorts, that reminds you to take a brief moment out of your stressful day and focus on your breathing to encourage relaxation. Additionally, the app has a minimalistic interface with a nice animation.

I thought it would be fun (and relaxing) to recreate the design, particularly in vanilla CSS. Here’s how far I got, which feels pretty close.


Making the circles

First things first, we need a set of circles that make up that flower looking design. The app itself adds a circle to the layout for each minute that is added to the timer, but we’re going to stick with a static set of six for this demo. It feels like we could get tricky by using ::before and ::after to reduce the HTML markup, but we can keep it simple.

<div class="circle"></div>
<div class="circle"></div>
<div class="circle"></div>
<div class="circle"></div>
<div class="circle"></div>
<div class="circle"></div>

We’re going to make the full size of each circle 125px which is an arbitrary number. The important thing is that the default state of the circles should be all of them stacked on top of one another. We can use absolute positioning to do that.

.circle {
  border-radius: 50%;
  height: 125px;
  position: absolute;
  transform: translate(0, 0);
  width: 125px;

Note that we’re using the translate function of the transform property to center everything. I had originally tried using basic top, right, bottom, left properties but found later that animating translate is much smoother. I also originally thought that positioning the circles in the full expanded state would be the best place to start, but also found that the animations were cumbersome to create that way because it required resetting each one to center. Lessons learned!

If we were to stop here, there would be nothing on the screen and that’s because we have not set a background color. We’ll get to the nice fancy colors used in the app in a bit, but it might be helpful to add a white background for now with a hint of opacity to help see what’s happening as we work.


We need a container!

You may have noticed that our circles are nicely stacked, but nowhere near the actual center of the viewport. We’re going to need to wrap these bad boys in a parent element that we can use to position the entire bunch. Plus, that container will serve as the element that pulses and rotates the entire set later. That was another lesson I had to learn the hard way because I stubbornly did not want the extra markup of a container and thought I could work around it.

We’re calling the container .watch-face here and setting it to the same width and height as a single circle.

<div class="watch-face">
  <div class="circle"></div>
  <div class="circle"></div>
  <div class="circle"></div>
  <div class="circle"></div>
  <div class="circle"></div>
  <div class="circle"></div>

Now, we can add a little flex to the body element to center everything up.

body {
  background: #000;
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  height: 100vh;

Next up, animate the circles

At this point, I was eager to see the circles positioned in that neat floral, overlapping arrangement. I knew that it would be difficult to animate the exact position of each circle without seeing them positioned first, so I overrode the transform property in each circle to see where they’d land.

We could set up a class for each circle, but using :nth-child seems easier.

.circle:nth-child(1) {
  transform: translate(-35px, -50px);

/* Skipping 2-5 for brevity... */

.circle:nth-child(6) {
  transform: translate(35px, 50px);

It took me a few swings and misses to find coordinates that worked. It ultimately depends on the size of the circles and it may take some finessing.


Armed with the coordinates, we can register the animations. I removed the transform coordinates that were applied to each :nth-child and moved them into keyframes:

@keyframes circle-1 {
  0% {
    transform: translate(0, 0);
  100% {
    transform: translate(-35px, -50px);

/* And so on... */

I have to admit that the way I went about it feels super clunky because each circle has it’s own animation. It would be slicker to have one animation that can rule them all to push and re-center the circles, but maybe someone else reading has an idea and can share it in the comments.

Now we can apply those animations to each :nth-child in place of transform:

.circle:nth-child(1) {
  animation: circle-1 4s ease alternate infinite;

/* And so on... */

Note that we set the animation-timing-function to ease because that feels smooth…at least to me! We also set the animation-direction to alternate so it plays back and forth and set the animation-iteration-count to inifinite so it stays running.


Color, color, color!

Oh yeah, let’s paint this in! From what I can tell, there are really only two colors in the design and the opacity is what makes it feel like more of a spectrum.

The circles on the left are a greenish color and the ones on the right are sorta blue. We can select the odd-numbered circles to apply the green and the even-numbered ones to apply the blue.

.circle:nth-child(odd) {
  background: #61bea2;

.circle:nth-child(even) {
  background: #529ca0;

Oh, and don’t forget to remove the white background from the .circle element. It won’t hurt anything, but it’s nice to clean up after ourselves. I admittedly forgot to do this on the first go.


It’s also at this point that others in the comments have suggested that replacing opacityfor mix-blend-mode with a value of screen makes for a nicer way to blend the colors of the circles. I’ve since updated the demos and the code.

Pulse and rotate

Remember that pesky .watch-face container we created? Well, we can animate it to pulse the circles in and out while rotating the entire bunch.

I had totally forgotten that transform functions can be chained together. That makes things a little cleaner because it allows us to apply scale() and rotate() on the same line.

@keyframes pulse {
  0% {
    transform: scale(.15) rotate(180deg);
  100% {
    transform: scale(1);

…and apply that to the .watch-face element.

.watch-face {
  height: 125px;
  width: 125px;
  animation: pulse 4s cubic-bezier(0.5, 0, 0.5, 1) alternate infinite;

Like the circles, we want the animation to run both ways and repeat infinitely. In this case, the scale drops to a super small size as the circles stack on top of each other and the whole thing rotates halfway on the way out before returning back on the way in.

I’ll admit that I am not a buff when it comes to finding the right animation-timing-function for the smoothest or exact animations. I played with cubic-bezier and found something I think feels pretty good, but it’s possible that a stock value like ease-in would work just as well.

All together now!

Here’s everything smushed into the same demo.


If you’re having a stressful day, even you don’t have an apple watch, you can gaze into the CSS animation you’ve created and lull yourself into tranquility.

Make sure you don’t keep all of this peacefulness to yourself, and pass along your newly discovered knowledge. 

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CSS Animations vs. JavaScript 2020

CSS Animations vs. JavaScript 2020

Welcome to the wtg guide for CSS Animations vs. JavaScript 2020. Once upon a time, most developers used jQuery to animate things in the browser. Fade this, expand that; simple stuff. As interactive projects got more aggressive and mobile devices burst onto the scene, performance became increasingly important. Flash faded away and talented animators pressed HTML5 to do things it had never done before. They needed better tools for complex sequencing and top-notch performance. jQuery simply wasn’t designed for that. Browsers matured and started offering solutions.

The most widely-acclaimed solution was CSS Animations (and Transitions). The darling of the industry for years now, CSS Animations have been talked about endlessly at conferences where phrases like “hardware accelerated” and “mobile-friendly” tickle the ears of the audience. JavaScript-based animation was treated as if it was antiquated and “dirty”. But is it?

As someone who’s fascinated (bordering on obsessed, actually) with animation and performance, I eagerly jumped on the CSS bandwagon. I didn’t get far, though, before I started uncovering a bunch of major problems that nobody was talking about. I was shocked.

This article is meant to raise awareness about some of the more significant shortcomings of CSS-based animation so that you can avoid the headaches I encountered, and make a more informed decision about when to use JS and when to use CSS for animation.

Lack of independent scale/rotation/position control

Animating the scale, rotation, and position of an element is incredibly common. In CSS, they’re all crammed into one “transform” property, making them impossible to animate in a truly distinct way on a single element. For example, what if you want to animate “rotation” and “scale” independently, with different timings and eases? Maybe an element is continuously pulsing (oscillating scale) and you’d like to rotate it on rollover. That’s only possible with JavaScript.

In my opinion, this is a glaring weakness in CSS but if you only do simpler animations that animate the entire transform state at any given time, this won’t be an issue for you.


Most comparisons on the web pit CSS animations against jQuery since it is so pervasive (as if “JavaScript” and “jQuery” were synonymous) but jQuery is widely known to be quite slow in terms of animation performance. The newer GSAP is also JavaScript-based but it’s literally up to 20x faster than jQuery. So part of the reason JavaScript animation got a bad reputation is what I call the “jQuery factor”.

The most frequently cited reason for using CSS for animation is “hardware acceleration”. Sounds yummy, right? Let’s break it down into two parts:

GPU involvement

The GPU is highly optimized for tasks like moving pixels around and applying transform matrices and opacity, so modern browsers try to offload those tasks from the CPU to the GPU. The secret is to isolate the animated elements onto their own GPU layers because once a layer is created (as long as its native pixels don’t change), it’s trivial for the GPU to move those pixels around and composite them together. Instead of calculating every single pixel 60 times per second, it can save chunks of pixels (as layers) and just say “move that chunk 10 pixels over and 5 pixels down” (or whatever).

Side note: It’s not wise to give every element its own layer because GPUs have limited video memory. If you run out, things will drastically slow down.

Declaring your animations in CSS allows the browser to determine which elements should get GPU layers, and divvy them up accordingly. Super.

But did you know you can do that with JavaScript too? Setting a transform with a 3D characteristic (like translate3d() or matrix3d()) triggers the browser to create a GPU layer for that element. So the GPU speed boost is not just for CSS animations – JavaScript animation can benefit too!

Also note that not all CSS properties get the GPU boost in CSS animations. In fact, most don’t. Transforms (scale, rotation, translation, and skew) and opacity are the primary beneficiaries. So don’t just assume that if you animate with CSS, everything magically gets GPU-juiced. That simply isn’t true.

Offloading calculations to a different thread

The other part of “hardware acceleration” has to do with being able to use a different CPU thread for animation-related calculations. Again, this sounds great in theory but it doesn’t come without costs, and developers often overestimate the benefits.

First of all, only properties that don’t affect document flow can truly be relegated to a different thread. So again, transforms and opacity are the primary beneficiaries. When you spin off other threads there’s overhead involved with managing that process. Since graphics rendering and document layout eat up the most processing resources (by FAR) in most animations (not calculating the intermediate values of property tweens), the benefit of using a separate thread for interpolation is minimal. For example, if 98% of the work during a particular animation is graphics rendering and document layout, and 2% is figuring out the new position/rotation/opacity/whatever values, even if you calculated them 10 times faster, you’d only see about a 1% speed boost overall.

Performance comparison

The stress test below creates a certain number of image elements (dots) and animates them from the center to random positions around the edges using random delays, creating a starfield effect. Crank up the number of dots and see how jQuery, GSAP, and Zepto compare. Since Zepto uses CSS transitions for all of its animations, it should perform best, right?

The results confirm what is widely reported on the web – CSS animations are significantly faster thanjQuery. However, on most devices and browsers I tested, the JavaScript-based GSAP performed even better than CSS animations (by a wide margin in some cases, like on the Microsoft Surface RT GSAP was probably at least 5 times faster than the CSS transitions created by Zepto, and on the iPad 3 iOS7 transforms were significantly faster when animated with GSAP instead of CSS transitions):

Animated propertiesBetter w/JavaScriptBetter w/CSS
top, left, width, heightWindows Surface RT, iPhone, iPad, iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Kindle Fire HD, IE(none)
transforms (translate/scale)Windows Surface RT, iPhone, iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Firefox, Opera, IEiPad, Safari, Chrome
Exactly how much “better”? The original version of the test had a frames-per-second counter for quantifiable results, but it quickly became apparent that there’s no truly accurate way to measure FPS across browsers especially with CSS animations, and certain browsers were reporting misleading numbers, so I removed it. You can easily gauge relative performance, though, by cranking up the number of dots, switching among engines, and watching how things perform (smooth movement, steady timing and dot dispersion, etc.). After all, the goal is to have animations look good.

Interesting things to note:

  • When animating top/left/width/height (properties that affect document flow), JavaScript was faster across the board (GSAP, not jQuery).
  • A few devices seemed highly optimized for transforms whereas others handled top/left/width/height animations better. Most notably, the older iOS6 was much better with CSS-animated transforms, but the newer iOS7 flip-flopped and now they are significantly slower.
  • There’s a substantial lag in the initial animation startup with CSS animations as the browser calculates layers and uploads the data to the GPU. This also applies to JavaScript-based 3D transforms, so “GPU acceleration” doesn’t come without its own costs.
  • Under heavy pressure, CSS transitions were more likely to spray out in bands/rings (this appears to be a synchronization/scheduling issue, possibly due to them being managed in a different thread).
  • In some browsers (like Chrome), when there were a very high number of dots animating, it completely killed the opacity fade of the text, but only when using CSS animations!

Although well-optimized JavaScript is often just as fast if not faster than CSS animations, 3D transforms do tend to be faster when animated with CSS, but that has a lot to do with the way browsers handle 16-element matrices today (forcing conversion from numbers to a concatenated string and back to numbers). Hopefully that’ll change, though. In most real-world projects, you’d never notice the performance difference anyway.

I’d encourage you to do your own testing to see which technology delivers the smoothest animation in your particular project(s). Don’t buy the myth that CSS animations are always faster, and also don’t assume that the speed test above reflects what you’d see in your apps. Test, test, test.

Runtime controls and events

Some browsers allow you to pause/resume a CSS keyframes animation, but that’s about it. You cannot seek to a particular spot in the animation, nor can you smoothly reverse part-way through or alter the time scale or add callbacks at certain spots or bind them to a rich set of playback events. JavaScript provides great control, as seen in the demo below.

Modern animation is very much tied to interactivity, so it’s incredibly useful to be able to animate from variable starting values to variable ending ones (maybe based on where the user clicks, for example), or change things on-the-fly but declarative CSS-based animation can’t do that.


For simple transitions between two states (i.e. rollovers or expanding menus, etc.), CSS Transitions are great. For sequencing things, however, you generally need to use CSS keyframe animations which force you to define things in percentages, like:

@keyframes myAnimation {
  0% {
    opacity: 0;
    transform: translate(0, 0);
  30% {
    opacity: 1;
    transform: translate(0, 0);
  60% {
    transform: translate(100px, 0);
  100% {
    transform: translate(100px, 100px);
#box {
   animation: myAnimation 2.75s;

But when you’re animating, don’t you think in terms of time rather than percentages? Like “fade up the opacity for 1 second, then slide to the right for 0.75 seconds, and bounce down to a rest 1 second later”. What happens if you spend hours crafting a complicated sequence in percentages, and then the client says “make that part in the middle 3 seconds longer”? Ouch. You’d need to recalculate ALL of the percentages!

Usually building animations involves a lot of experimentation, especially with timing and eases. This is actually where a seek() method would be quite useful. Imagine building out a 60-second animation piece-by-piece and then finessing the final 5 seconds; you would need to sit through the first 55 seconds every time you want to see the results of your edits to the last parts. Yuck. With aseek() method, you could just drop that into place during production to skip to the part you’re working on, and then remove it when you’re done. Big time-saver.

It is becoming increasingly common to animate canvas-based objects and other 3rd-party library objects but unfortunately CSS animations can only target DOM elements. That means that if you invest a lot of time and energy in CSS animations, it won’t translate to those other types of projects. You’ll have to switch animation tool sets.

There are a few more workflow-related conveniences that are missing in CSS Animations:

  • Relative values. Like “animate the rotation 30 degrees more” or “move the element down 100px from where it is when the animation starts”.
  • Nesting. Imagine being able to create animations that can get nested into another animation which itself can be nested, etc. Imagine controlling that master animation while everything remains perfectly synchronized. This structure would promote modularized code that is much easier to produce and maintain.
  • Progress reporting. Is a particular animation finished? If not, exactly where is it at in terms of its progress?
  • Targeted kills. Sometimes it’s incredibly useful to kill all animations that are affecting the “scale” of an element (or whatever properties you want), while allowing the rest to continue.
  • Concise code. CSS keyframe animations are verbose even if you don’t factor in all the redundant vendor-prefixed versions necessary. Anyone who has tried building something even moderately complex will attest to the fact that CSS animations quickly get cumbersome and unwieldy. In fact, the sheer volume of CSS necessary to accomplish animation tasks can exceed the weight of a JavaScript library (which is easier to cache and reuse across many animations).

Limited effects

You can’t really do any of the following with CSS animations:

  • Animate along a curve (like a Bezier path).
  • Use interesting eases like elastic or bounce or a rough ease. There’s a cubic-bezier()option, but it only allows 2 control points, so it’s pretty limited.
  • Use different eases for different properties in a CSS keyframe animation; eases apply to the whole keyframe.
  • Physics-based motion. For example, the smooth momentum-based flicking and snap-back implemented in this Draggable demo.
  • Animate the scroll position
  • Directional rotation (like “animate to exactly 270 degrees in the shortest direction, clockwise or counter-clockwise”).
  • Animate attributes.


CSS-based animation doesn’t work in IE9 and earlier. Most of us hate supporting older browsers (especially IE), but the reality is that some of us have clients who require that support.

Browser prefixes are necessary for many browsers, but you can leverage preprocessing tools to avoid having to manually write them out.


Are CSS animations “bad”? Certainly not. In fact, they’re great for simple transitions between states (like rollovers) when compatibility with older browsers isn’t required. 3D transforms usually perform very well (iOS7 being a notable exception), and CSS animations can be very attractive for developers who prefer putting all of their animation and presentation logic in the CSS layer. However, JavaScript-based animation delivers far more flexibility, better workflow for complex animations and rich interactivity, and it often performs just as fast (or even faster) than CSS-based animation despite what you may have heard.

When compared to jQuery.animate(), I can understand why CSS Animations were so appealing. Who in their right mind wouldn’t jump at the chance to get a 10-fold performance boost? But it’s no longer a choice between jQuery and CSS Animations; JavaScript-based tools like GSAP open up entirely new possibilities and wipe out the performance gap.

This article isn’t about GSAP or any particular library; the point is that JavaScript-based animation doesn’t deserve a bad reputation. In fact, JavaScript is the only choice for a truly robust, flexible animation system. Plus, I wanted to shed some light on the frustrating parts of CSS animations (which nobody seems to talk about) so that you can ultimately make a more informed decision about how you animate in the browser.

Will the Web Animations spec solve things?

The W3C created a spec called Web Animations that aims to solve a lot of the deficiencies in CSS Animations and CSS Transitions, providing better runtime controls and extra features. It certainly seems like a step forward in many ways, but it still has shortcomings (some of which are probably impossible to overcome due to the need for legacy support of existing CSS specifications, so for example, independent transform component control is unlikely). There are definitely some smart guys who worked on the spec.

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CSS Color Names: The Tragicomedy

CSS Color Names: The Tragicomedy

The CSS “Named Colors” section of the CSS Color Module Level 4—the latest specification for color values and properties within the Cascading Style Sheets language—are 141 standard colors. Each has its own name, so beyond the essentials of “black” and “white” are shades like “papaya whip,” a warm orange pastel; “lemon chiffon,” a faint, milky yellow; and “burlywood,” which has likely made an appearance on a safari tour guide’s shorts.

At first glance, these names seem fluffy, and they bear connotations of sugary, whimsical romanticism. Where do such abstract names come from, and why are they a part of something as methodical as writing code?

The answer to these questions begins in 1980s Massachusetts. Originally, the colors were a product of the X Window System (X), a graphical user interface (GUI) released by MIT in 1984. In June of 1986, the first list of GUI colors, which was tuned to the DEC VT240 series terminal, shipped with the third release of X’s tenth version (X10R3). It comprised 69 basic shades, with 138 entries to account for different cases in the color names (e.g., lowercase with spacing like “dark red” versus camel case like “DarkRed”).

In 1988, X11R2 arrived with the addition of three colors, including the identical shades “gray” and “grey.” According to Austin-based developer Alex Sexton, discussing the colors at a JavaScript Conference last year, programmers at Hewlett-Packard couldn’t remember the proper spelling (which was originally with an ‘a’). Including two names, it was thought, would prevent errors.

The most substantial release, created by Paul Raveling, came in 1989 with X11R4. This update heralded a slew of light neutral tones, and it was a response to complaints from Raveling’s coworkers about color fidelity. (In the ‘80s, colors could vary dramatically from monitor to monitor, depending on the machine vendor. As if to illustrate this, a particularly baffled employee exclaimed, “That’s Wheat???!!!” upon the sight of the hue in the previous text file.) In this version, programmers were introduced to the aforementioned “papaya whip” and “lemon chiffon,” as well as other loftily-named hues like “blanched almond” and “peach puff.”

Raveling drew these names from an unsurprising source: the (now-defunct) paint company Sinclair Paints. It was an arbitrary move; after failing to receive sanctions from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which issued standards for Web color properties, Raveling decided to take matters into his own hands. He calibrated the colors for his own HP monitor. “Nuts to ANSI & ‘ANSI standards,’” he complained.

Later that year, X11 gained a set of bolder colors thanks to another programmer, John C. Thomas. Just as Raveling’s update tweaked shades to assuage user confusion, Thomas’s addressed the following written objection from coworker Bruce Schuchardt in 1989:

“[I] am still shocked and horrified by the default colors in the rgb database. The ‘pink’ color in particular looks like the flesh-tone of someone who has been puking for several hours and would really rather get a bullet in the head than go on living.”

Thomas agreed. Frustrated with inconsistent displays, he started to find it futile to standardize color names. In response, he stated in an e-mail that he “sat down one evening with the handiest standard of subjective color names, a box of 72 Crayola crayons.” That birthed “aquamarine,” “orchid,” and “salmon,” to name a few.

By 2001, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) published the first working draft of the CSS 3 Color Module that would include the colors. In light of evolving technologies, the colors had fallen out of use, but the W3C claimed the goal was to “codify current practices.” Every browser supported the colors at this point, consequently, the W3C had been using them in compatibility tests. Incorporating the colors into CSS, then, would prevent sites from breaking.

“It was like a backwards-compatibility thing. They thought, ‘We’ve accidentally been doing this, so we might as well just not break it,’” Sexton told Ars.

Backlash ensued. The color database had been subjected to the whims of so many different programmers that it became deeply disorganized, leading some to argue it had no place in CSS. Critics attacked its naming scheme: “dark gray” was lighter than “gray”; there was a “medium violet red” but no “violet red”; “light goldenrod yellow” had no corresponding “goldenrod yellow.” In total 17 colors had dark versions, but only 13 had light ones. Color distribution was also uneven, skewing toward reds and greens and away from blues.

Perhaps the most vehement denunciation comes from a 2002 e-mail written by programmer Steven Pemberton: “The X11 colour names are an abomination that should have been stifled at birth, and adding them to CSS is a blemish on the otherwise excellent design of CSS. To say that the X11 colour set and their names have been ‘designed’ is an insult to the word ‘design.’ It is just a mess.”

Another point of contention was cultural exclusion. Some programmers took umbrage at the region-centric nature of names like “dodger blue” and the potential racial undertones of “navajo white” (from Sinclair Paints) and “indian red” (from Crayola, though the crayon has since been renamed in response to the same concerns). Others considered the English-only names alienating.

“I’m not a native English speaker. Imagine my reaction the first time I saw the ‘gainsboro’ color  or ‘papaya whip,’” Daniel Glazman, co-chairman of the CSS Working Group, told Ars.

Ostensibly, these repercussions could have been prevented. In the ‘80s, X system programmers had the option to identify colors the way many developers do today: with a hexadecimal value (AKA hex value, e.g., #FFFF00) or an RGB color code (e.g., 255,255,0). These options allow a greater degree of choice and precision, and they’re based on schematic, objective, globally legible systems. Why weren’t they used in the first place?

“It was a recognition that almost nobody likes using the numeric values. People don’t think in terms of F5B as a particular shade of color. Using a name is more natural,” said Jim Fulton, a student at MIT at the time of X’s creation and manager of Raveling’s and Thomas’s files. However, he conceded, “Not every idea works out well.”

In 2014, however, an unexpected event cast the color list in a more favorable light: a new shade. “Rebecca purple,” was introduced to honor the life of Rebecca Meyer, the daughter of Eric Meyer, a respected programmer and CSS writer. Rebecca died of brain cancer at the age of six; the hue (#663399) was chosen to reflect her favorite color. (A few developers opposed the addition, maintaining that a set of standards was no place for an emotional tribute. They were dismissed as curmudgeons.)

Still, the general consensus is that these colors’ utility is minimal; they’re best reserved as placeholders (it’s easier to type “tomato” than “#FF6347” when you need a color quickly), for beginner-level design projects, or as the butt of a joke.

“I view it with amusement that the colors seem to have migrated into CSS. I just laugh at it,” Fulton told Ars. “I think if someone were to go and crawl over the top 100 or top 1,000 sites and take a look at how various colors are specified, I’m willing to bet you’d still find close to zero percent using color names beyond ‘white’ or ‘black.’”

“If I’m doing an example to show people how to use an editor or a framework, I use hex values like #C0FFEE or #BADA55. It’s about as useful to use #C0FFEE as it is to use ‘papaya whip,’” Sexton added.

Should the colors have been left without standard names then, sparing the development community from a series of angry e-mails and micro-controversies? According to Fulton, probably. Then again, as programmers navigated the uncharted territory of color-displaying GUIs in the ‘80s, it was only natural to experiment any way they knew how.

“At the time, we were dealing with, in some ways, the very beginnings of the graphical home-computer industry,” he said. “For color devices especially, this was the very beginning.”

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